본 연구는 헛개나무 용기묘를 생산하기 위한 적정 차광수준을 밝히고자 수행되었다. 헛개나무 1년생 용기묘를 대상으로 4가지 차광처리(0%, 35%, 55%, 75%)에 따른 용기묘의 간장, 근원경, 건중량, 묘목품질지수, 엽록소 함량 등의 반응 특성을 조사하였다. 연구 결과, 헛개나무 용기묘의 근원경, 잎 건중량, 뿌리 건중량은 차광처리구 간에 통계적인 유의성이 나타나지 않았으나(p≥0.05), 간장, 줄기 건중량, 엽록소 함량은 차광처리에 의해 55%와 75%의 차광처리에서 유의적인 차이를 나타내며 증가하였다(p<0.001). 간장과 줄기 건중량의 증가로 헛개나무 용기묘의 H/D율과 T/R율은 증가하였으며 묘목품질지수는 낮게 나타났다. 따라서, 헛개나무 1년생 용기묘 생산을 위한 적절한 차광수준은 묘목품질지수가 가장 높게 나타난 35%로 판단된다. 본 연구결과는 우량한 헛개나무 용기묘 생산을 위한 기초자료로 활용될 수 있을 것으로 기대된다.
The antioxidant effects by pre-treatment of Hutgae fruit water and ethanol (30°, Soju) extract on refrigerated eels were analyzed. The antioxidant activities were measured through DPPH and ABTS scavenging effect, values of acidity, peroxide, carbonyl, and TBA. The peroxide prevention effects of linoleic acid and eel oil were also assessed. Regarding DPPH radical scavenging, Hutgae ethanol extract presented higher scavenging effects than vitamin C 5 mM solution (p<0.05). The eel’s peroxidation degree was measured through 21 days of refrigeration after cleaning and immersion into the extract solution for one hour. Upon measuring the values of four different peroxide indicators, those of eels pre-treated with Hutgae extracts were lower than those of eels untreated. The POV of Hutgae ethanol extract, vitamin C 5 mM, and the control was 11.1, 11.3, 15.5 meq/kg, respectively. Hutgae ethanol extract showed higher antioxidant activities in TBA value, and carbonyl value than other samples. In linoleic acid or eel oil, Hutgae extract was as superiorly effective in preventing peroxide generation of refrigerated eels as vitamin C 10 mM solution. In conclusion, pre-application of Hutgae water and ethanol (30°, Soju) extract on eels was proved to be competent in stopping peroxidation of eel in refrigeration.
The fruit stalk of Hovenia dulcis (H.dulcis) is traditionally used to relieve hangovers in Korea. Theracurmin is a highly absorbable curcumin preparation which increases the bioavailability of curcumin. Curcumin is known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the role of this combination in lowering alcohol levels in the body, thereby alleviating the severity of alcohol-induced hangover has not been investigated. Therefore, we conducted a study to investigate the eliminatory effects of a health drink containing the extract of the H. dulcis fruit stalk and theracurmin (theracurmin drink) on ethanol-induced hangover in rats. The theracurmin drink delivered orally to rats 30 mins before the administration of 40% ethanol (5 g/kg body weight), lowered the concentration of ethanol and acetaldehyde in the blood samples collected 1, 3, and 5 h after ethanol administration. Furthermore, the theracurmin drink increased the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes. The effectiveness of the theracurmin drink was thus superior to that of other health drink products, suggesting that its consumption may alleviate or prevent an alcohol-induced hangover.
This study was designed to evaluate the improvement in exercise endurance by Hovenia dulcis fruit hot water extract (HDWE) for the potential application as a functional food material. The effect was based on the evaluation of the forced-swimming capacity and changes in biochemical parameters in mice. Six-week-old mice were classified into four groups based on a randomized block design: the negative control group, the HDWE 50 mg/kg body weight group, the HDWE 200 mg/kg body weight group, and the 1-octacosanol 50 mg/kg body weight group (n=8 mice per group). The swimming exercise time in the HDWE-50 group was increased at 545±43 sec compared to the control group at 263±28 sec. The HDWE-200 fatigue indicators, lactate acid and ammonia content, decreased to 4.99±0.33 mg/mL and 0.63±0.05 mg/mL, respectively. In addition, the content of glycogen in the liver and muscle tended to increase in the group administered HDWE but was not significant. Likewise, the LDH and glucose contents were increased compared to the control group. The muscle damage indicators ALT (52.7±2.6 U/L) and AST (42.5±5.2 U/L) tended to decrease compared to the control group (76.4±10.2 U/L).
This study was conducted to investigate if the supplement formula may improve alcohol metabolism in healthy adult men.In a double-blinded, randomized, crossover study, subjects were administrated yeast extract mixtures (YEM, n=15), Hovenia dulcis mixtures (HDM, n=15), placebo (PLA, n=15), and control (CON, n=15) in an oral dose followed by one week washout periods. At each visit (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 week), subjects drank 450 mL, 20.1 percent alcohol after administered mixtures. Blood was drawn periodically (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 15 hours). Fifteen subjects completed the protocol and were included in the analysis. Plasma ethanol concentration was lower in YEM (10 percent) and the HDM (5 percent) groups. The area under the curves (AUC) and Cmax for plasma ethanol were significantly decreased only in the YEM group, when compared with the CON group. The AUC and Cmax for plasma acetaldehyde concentration were significantly decreased in the YEM (45 and 54 percent) and the HDM (35 and 53 percent) groups respectively, when compared with PLA (p<0.01). Together, these findings validate that YEM or HDM improved alcohol metabolism and hangover syndromes, leading to reduce alcohol concentration and acetaldehyde concentration without adverse effects.
산업화를 위한 지구자 및 12가지 식물성 원료 추출물의 생리학적 효과를 평가하기 위하여, 만성 에탄 올을 투여한 마우스 혈청 내에서의 생리학적 지표 및 간과 뇌 조직 내에서의 산화적 스트레스에 대한 보호효과를 확인하였다. 에탄올을 투여한 마우스의 혈당은 정상 대조군 그룹(NG)과 에탄올 투여 그룹 (EG)에서 각각 119.43mg/dL, 305.25mg/dL로 나타났고, 에탄올과 혼합 추출물을 동시에 투여한 그룹 (100, 200mg/kg body weight + 25% ethanol 5g/kg body weight, ME100, ME200)에서 각각 272.76mg/dL, 234.60mg/dL로 감소하였다. 혈중 에탄올 함량은 EG에서 4.08mg/dL를 나타내었고 ME100, 200에서 각각 3.85mg/dL, 3.08mg/dL로 감소하였으며, 혈중 아세트알데하이드 함량은 18.72mg/dL에서 각각 15.76mg/dL, 15.16mg/dL로 감소하였다. 또한 ME100, ME200은 혈청 내의 생 리학적 지표에서 간 독성 지표인 glutamine pyruvic transaminase(GPT), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase(GOT)와 신장 독성 지표인 blood urea nitrogen(BUN), creatine(CRE), 혈중 total cholesterol(TCHO), triglyceride(TG)의 함량이 유의하게 감소하였다. 뇌 조직에서 에탄올에 의해 acetylcholinesterase(AChE)가 EG(116.10%)에서 NG(100.00%)와 비교하였을 때 증가된 활성을 나타냈 으나, ME에서 각각 109.00%와 108.47%로 유의적으로 감소하였다. ME에서 EG에 비해 간과 뇌 조직에 서 superoxide dismutase(SOD)의 함량이 증가하였고, oxidized glutathione(GSH)/total GSH 비율과 malondialdehyde(MDA)의 함량이 감소하였다. 이러한 결과들을 통해 지구자를 포함한 혼합 추출물은 간, 뇌 조직 및 혈액 등에서 만성 에탄올 섭취에 의해 유발된 산화적 스트레스를 효과적으로 보호할 수 있는 제품으로의 개발이 가능할 것으로 판단된다.
β-cyclodextrin has an ability to protect compounds from oxidative reaction by collecting them within its ring-like structure. So, In harsh condition (40oC), marker compound, quercetin, was dramatically reduced in Hovenia dulcis fruit extract containing dextrin at 4 and 8 week compared to 0 week, but not that containing β-cyclodextrin. To evaluate the effects of dextrin and β-cyclodextrin on protective effect of H.dulcis fruit extract against alcohol- induced liver damage, The mice were orally injected alcohol, H. dulcis fruit extract/dextrin (HD) and H. dulcis fruit extract/β-cyclodextrin (HCD), respectively, for 7 days. The mice orally administrated with alcohol significantly enhanced the serum concentration of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in serum compared to the control group. HD and HCD significantly decreased the levels of serum ALT and AST and serum LDH activities compared to alcohol group. And also alcohol group significantly increased the level of total cholesterol compared to the control group, but HD and HCD significantly reduced it compared to the alcohol group. However, the levels of TG in blood were not significantly changed in all groups. The activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) were significantly increased in HD and HCD group although those of aldehyde dehydrogenase showed an increasing tendency. This data suggested that HD and HCD were able to induce alcohol degradation in the liver tissues. All together, the results showed that HCD demonstrated their ability to protect liver from alcohol-induced damage on equal terms with HD.
The objective of this study was to investigate the sensory quality attributes for the development of soy sauce containing an extract of the fruit of Hovenia dulcis Thunb (Hutgae), also known as liver function improvement and hangover removal. Aqueous extracts of Hutgae fruit and Hutgae fruit-soy sauce were used for determining the sensory evaluation. The intensity of the sweet smell and taste was predominated in the Hutgae fruit extract (p<0.05). Various seasoning items, such as apples, pears, dried figs, Korean bramble (Bokbunja), citron (Yuza) and sun-dried hot pepper (Taeyangcho), were used to determine the suitable type of seasoned soy sauce with the Hutgae fruit extract. In the sensory analysis, the highest overall preference (acceptance score 5) was obtained from the pear extract added to soy sauce with the Hutgae fruit. The overall preference of Yuza (score 4.9) and Taeyangcho (score 4.5) extracts also very well-matched the seasoning items for soy sauce with the Hutgae fruit extract. There was no difference among the extract mixtures of multi-seasoning items added to soy sauce with the Hutgae fruit extract. As more pear extract was added, a higher overall preference was obtained. On the other hand, as the more Yuza extract was added, the higher flavor intensity without the change of the overall preference was obtained. The overall preference of soy sauce with the pear- Yuza-Taeyangcho extract mixture was not different between with or without the Hutgae fruit extract. However, the overall preference (score 5.6) was significantly higher in the pear extract added to soy sauce with the Hutgae fruit extract compared with the pear extract added to soy sauce without the Hutgae fruit extract (score 4.8). These results suggest that soy sauce with the Hutgae fruit-pear extract mixture may be useful as a functional seasoning for various salad dressings.
Home-made soy sauces with or without Hovenia dulcis Thunb (Hutgae) originated from different parts such as fruits, stems, and twigs were prepared according to the Korean traditional procedure. Soy sauces supplemented with Hutgae were evaluated for their activities of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (DPPH) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), free amino acid profiles, and sensory quality. All soy sauce types containing Hutgae had a strong DPPH activity as compared to the general type of soy sauce without Hutgae (GSC). Among Hutgae groups, DPPH activities of soy sauce supplemented with Hutgae stems was higher than that of soy sauces with either Hutgae fruits or twigs. ADH activities of soy sauces with Hutgae ranged from 14% to 55%, thus indicating that the functional activity of Hutgae was not altered during soy sauce preparations. Total free amino acid content of GSC was 295.5 ㎎%, and that of soy sauce with Hutgae fruits (346.8 ㎎%) was the highest when compared to Hutgae stems (272.3 ㎎%) and Hutgae twigs (225.6 ㎎%). In amino acid profiles, aspartate, arginine, histidine, and lysine levels were higher in soy sauces with Hutgae compared to GSC, whereas isoleucine, leucine, and phenylalanine levels were lower. Particularly, high levels of aspartate, glutamate, threonine, and lysine were presented in Hutgae twigs, whereas for Hutgae fruits and Hutgae stems, the levels of serine, glycine and arginine, and proline and methionine were high, respectively. According to sensory evaluations, Hutgae stems were preferred than GSC, due to the lower offensive smell and higher umami tastes. These findings demonstrate that soy sauce with Hutgae stems has potential protective effects against hangovers, improves the taste, and implies a possible functional ingredient.
In order to investigate the effects of 70% EtOH extract obtained from Hovenia dulcis Thunberg on enzymes relating reactive oxygen intermediate, cancer-stricken animals induced by DEN (N, N diethylnitrosamine) were recovered by administering the extract of Hovenia dulcis Thunberg. It showed that there was no effect on the generation of superoxide radical by the extract of Hovenia dulcis Thunberg. However, considering the increase of the activity of Cu, Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD in the tested animal class, the extract of Hovenia dulcis Thunberg could participate directly in removing of superoxides. The experimented-animals treated with the extract of Hovenia dulcis Thunberg showed an increase in the activity of the enzymes, catalase and glutathione peroxidase, which can eliminate hydrogen peroxide pertained in liver tissue. The extract of Hovenia dulcis Thunberg seemed to have some factors that accelerate the oxidation. Also, the extract of Hovenia dulcis Thunberg showed effects on the enzymes relating to the active oxygen toxicity which could be an indicator of aging and body toxicity.
The objective of this study was to investigate free amino acid composition, antioxidant activity, alcohol dehydrogenase activity and the sensory quality attributes for the development of functional soy sauce using Hutgae (Hovenia dulcis Thunb) fruit, which is well-known for improving liver function and alleviating various negative physiological effects following heavy consumption of alcoholic beverages. Soy sauces adding six types of extract from Hutgae fruit (HF) were prepared (SSH1: HF 20%, SSH2: HF 10%, SSH3: HF 20%/40 days NaCl extract, SSH4: HF 20%/20 days NaCl extract, SSH5: HF 20% water bath extract, SSH6: freeze-drying powder from HF 20% aqueous extract), compared with soy sauce using the conventional method. These soy sauces were used for determining alcohol dehydrogenase activity by NADH absorbance, the antioxidant effect by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and sensory evaluation by sensory scaling. Total free amino acid contents for most samples were in the range of 327.3 to 375.5 ㎎%, and then, aspartic acid and glutamic acid content of SSH1 and SSH5 were higher than that of others. DPPH radical scavenging activity was shown to be the highest in SSH4, also SSH1, SSH5 and SSF6 were shown to be higher than the control group. Alcohol dehydrogenase activity was shown to be the highest in SSH5. In sensory evaluation, the highest intensity of roast smell was observed in SSH4 while sweet taste was shown to be the highest in SSH5, and SSH3 and SSH5 revealed higher overall acceptability. From these results, Hutgae fruit soy sauces demonstrated antioxidant activity and alcohol dehydrogenase activity. In conclusion, soy sauces containing the water bath extract of Hutgae fruit may be used as a functional seasoning.
The objective of this study was to investigate the sensory quality attributes for the development of soy sauce containing Hutgae(Hovenia dulcis Thunb). Aqueous extracts of Hutgae were prepared from different parts such as trunk, twig, and fruit. These extracts were used for determining the antioxidant effect by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH) radical scavenging activity and sensory evaluation. Hutgae twig and fruit extracts had a strong DPPH scavenging effect compared to Hutgae trunk extract. In sensory analysis, high intensities of roast smell, bitter taste, and astringent taste were observed in Hutgae twig extract, whereas those of sweet smell and sweet taste were predominated within Hutgae fruit extract. Hutgae trunk and fruit extracts obtained higher overall acceptability. Various seasoning items such as anchovy, dried-pollack, katsuobushi, shiitake, radish, and kelp were used to determine the suitable type of soy sauce containing Hutgae extracts regarding the different parts. Hutgae fruit and trunk extracts were evaluated for use as a good source of seasoned soy sauce, and the dried-pollack and radish among the seasoning items were well-matched with Hutgae extracts. From these results, soy sauce containing Hutgae trunk and fruit extracts added to dried-pollack soup may be used as a functional seasoning in order to remove hangovers.
2006년부터 2009년 말까지 월악산에 서식하는 산양의 겨울철 배설물을 관찰한 결과, 배설물 속에 헛개나무 종자가 포함되어 있었고, 봄철에 그 배설물에서 헛개나무 종자가 발아하는 것을 확인하였다. 산양이 헛개나무 종자의 발아에 미치는 영향을 살펴보기 위하여 동일 시기 및 장소에서 산양의 배설물 속에서 수집한 헛개나무 종자 600개와 산양이 먹지 않은 종자 600개를 포트에 심어 비교, 관찰하였다. 그 결과, 산양 배설물 속에서 추출한 헛개나무 종자는 발아율이 32.5%였으나, 산양이 먹지 않은 종자는 발아율이 0.8%로 나타났다. 산양 서식지에서 산양이 먹이원으로 섭취하는 헛개나무 종자는 산양이 서식하지 않는 지역보다 40배 정도 발아율이 높은 것으로 확인되었다.
숙취해소용 음료로 개발된 건강음료를 각각 알코올(5 g/kg B.W, 40%) 투여 30분 전과 후에 경구적으로 섭취시키고(10 mL/kg) 시간(1, 3 및 5)에 따라 미동맥으로 채혈하여 혈액 중 알코올 농도와 아세트알데히드 농도, 간 조직 중 알코올 대사효소 alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) 및 aldehyde dehydrogenase(ALDH)의 활성과 간기능 지표 효소(ALT, AST)의 활성 변동을 측정 비교하여 다음과 같은 결과를 얻었다. 알코올 투여 30분 전에 건강음료를 공급하였을 때 혈액 중 알코올 농도는 알코올 투여 1시간 후부터 모든 군에서 급격하게 감소하였으며 알코올 투여 5시간째에 알코올 대조군(EC)에 비해 건강음료 투여군(BE)은 48.4%정도 감소하는 경향을 나타내었다. 또한 아세트알데히드 농도는 알코올 대조군(EC)에 비해 건강음료 투여군(BE)은 15.6%, 타사제품 투여군(P)은 20.3% 낮았다. 알코올 투여 30분 후 숙취해소 음료를 공급하고 5시간 경과 후 건강음료 투여군(AE)의 알코올 농도는 알코올 대조군(EC)에 비해 65.2% 낮은 수치를 나타내었다. 아세트알데히드 농도는 알코올 대조군에 비해 건강음료 투여군(AE)은 36.4% 낮은 0.21 mg/dL 타사제품투여군(P)은 24.2% 낮은 0.25 mg/dL를 나타내었다. 간 조직 중 ADH 활성은 정상군과 알코올을 섭취 한 모든 실험군 사이에 별다른 변동을 관찰할 수 없었다. 숙취해소 음료의 1회 섭취와 체중 1 kg당 5 g의 알코올 1회 투여가 알코올 대사 효소의 활성에 영향을 미치지 못함을 시사하고 있다. 혈청 ALT, AST 활성은 정상군과 알코올 투여 실험군간에 유의적인 차이를 보이지 않았으며 또 건강음료의 음용이 정상적인 간 기능에 영향을 미치지 않는 결과를 볼 때 안전성이 인정된다고 생각된다.
In this study, the anti-inflammatory activities of the extracts of different parts of Hovenia dulcis such as leaves, stems, and roots were investigated. Among them, the roots extract (RE) showed the most potent suppressive effect against pro-inflammatory mediators in LPS-stimulated mouse macrophage cells. RE induced dose-dependent reduction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and concomitantly reduced the production of NO and PGE2. Additionally, pre-treatment with RE significantly suppressed the production of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6, as well as mRNA levels. Moreover, phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) were also strongly attenuated by RE in RAW264.7 cell. Furthermore, RE induced HO-1 expression through nuclear translocation of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and increase HO-1 activity in RAW264.7 macrophages. Therefore, these results indicate that RE strongly inhibits LPS-induced inflammatory responses by blocking NF-kB activation, inhibiting MAPKs phosphorylation, and enhancing HO-1 expression in macrophages, suggesting that RE of H. dulicis and a major component, 27-O-protocatechuoylbetulinic acid could be applied as a valuable natural anti-inflammatory material.
본 연구에서는 영지버섯 균사 배양 시 헛개나무 추출물의 첨가가 영지버섯의 가나도마난디올의 생합성에 미치는 영향을 분석하기 위하여 수행하였다. 가나도마난디올은 트리터페노이드 계열의 물질이며 영지버섯의 주 요한 생리효능을 가지는 물질 중의 하나이다. 이와 관련하여, 본 연구자들은 선행연구를 통하여 가나도마난디올 이 B16F10 멜라노마 세포의 티로시나제 저해 활성 및 멜라닌 생합성 저해능에 우수한 효과가 있는 것을 확인하 였다. 본 연구에서 영지버섯 균사 배양 시 15% (v/v)의 헛개나무 추출물 첨가하면 영지버섯의 가나도마난디올 생합성이 첨가하지 않은 대조군에 비해 유의적으로 증가함을 HPLC분석을 통하여 확인하였다. 또한, 15% (v/v)의 헛개나무 추출물을 첨가한 영지균사 배양추출물의 B16F10 멜라노마 세포에 대한 멜라닌 생합성 억제 능이 첨가하지 않은 대조군에 비해 유의적으로 증가함을 확인하였다. 또한, 영지버섯 균사 배양 시 헛개나무 추출물 첨가가 미백활성을 가지는 가나도마난디올 생합성 증가뿐 아니라, 액체 및 고체 배양시 균사의 생장도 촉진하는 것을 확인하였다. 이러한 결과들은 헛개나무가 영지버섯균사의 미백활성 물질인 가나도마난디올 생 합성의 증가를 유도하고 이로 인한 영지버섯 균사의 미백 활성이 증가하는 유용한 소재로 사용될 수 있다는 것을 시사한다.
Hovenia dulcis fruit powder (HFP) has shown diverse functional activities; thus, it is rational to incorporate HFP into suitable food products with enhanced nutritional and functional quality, and their incorporation into bakery products such as cookies could be a good alternative for the increase of consumption. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of HFP addition on the quality characteristics of cookies. The pH of cookie doughs ranged from 5.80-6.34, with no remarkable differences by HFP addition. Density of cookie doughs significantly decreased upon addition of HFP (p<0.05), but there were no significant differences among samples added with HFP (p>0.05). Moisture content and spread factor of cookies significantly increased with higher content of HFP in the formulation (p<0.05). For color values of cookie surface, L* and b*-values decreased while a*-value increased as a result of HFP substitution (p<0.05). 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2’-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6- sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activities were significantly increased (p<0.05) with higher substitution of HFP, showing a positive correlation. Hedonic sensory results indicated that cookies supplemented with 4% HFP received the most favorable acceptance scores for sensory attributes. Overall, HFP-added cookies could be developed with improved physicochemical qualities without sacrificing consumer acceptability.
발효에 의한 헛개열매의 기능성 상승 정도를 검토하고자, 헛개열매열수추출물을 발효시킨 후 급성 및 만성 알코올 투여 간손상 동물모델을 통하여 체중감량 억제, 알코올 분해 및 간기능 개선 효능을 검증하였다. 급성 알코올 투여 동물모델에서 헛개열매발효군(ET-FHWE)은 알코올대조군(ET)에 비하여 혈청 알코올 농도가 유의적으로 감소되었고, 특히 알코올 투여 3시간 후의 알코올 농도는 헛개열매추출액발효물에 의해 46.1%, 헛개열매열수추출물에 의해 19.1% 감소된 것으로 나타났다. 또한 알코올 투여에 의해 증가된 혈청 아세트알데하이드 농도는 헛개열매추출액발효물에 의해 알코올 투여 3시간 후에는 48.7%, 5시간 후에는 39%로 알코올대조군(ET)보다 유의적으로 감소하였고, 이는 헛개열매열수추출물은 발효에 의해 알코올 및 아세트알데하이드 분해능이 증가하는 것으로 사료되었다. 만성 알코올 투여 간손상 동물모델 실험에서 알코올 투여에 의해 상승된 혈청 알코올 농도는 헛개열매열수추출물과 헛개열매추출액발효물 투여에 의해 각각 31%, 41% 유의적으로 감소하였다. 혈청 아세트알데하이드 농도와 γ-GTP 활성도는 헛개열매열수추출물과 헛개열매추출액발효물 투여에 의해 알코올대조군(ET)보다 유의적으로 감소되었으며, 장기간 알코올 투여에 의한 체중 감소 억제 및 간조직 지질수준의 유의적 감소를 나타내었다. 또한 헛개열매추출액발효물은 장기간의 알코올 투여로 인해 감소된 혈당을 유의적으로 증가시키는 것으로 나타났다. 본 연구 결과, 급성 알코올 투여 동물모델에서 헛개열매열수추출물은 발효에 의해 알코올 및 아세트알데하이드 분해능이 증진되었고, 만성알코올 투여 모델을 통한 실험에서는 발효에 의해 헛개열매의 간기능 개선효능이 유지됨과 동시에 일부 효능(혈청 지질 및 혈당 수준 개선능)은 증가하는 것으로 나타났다. 따라서 헛개열매추출액발효물은 급성 및 만성 알코올성 간손상 억제에 있어서 헛개열매열수추출물보다 더욱 강력한 기능성 물질로 활용될 수 있을 것으로 기대된다.