Floral pattern plays a vital role in flower structure. The most basic factors that make up the floral pattern are spots and lines in Sedirea japonica. These factors were expressed in a various pattern according to their location and the type of the flower. Frequent expression pattern is higher in the left side of lateral sepal and labellum than petal and dorsal sepal. The expression type in one plant is usually very different according to right or left of sepals, flowering orders, and flowering times and in some individuals, expression pattern remained constant in all flowers. Two hybrids from the cross between Hygrochilus parishii and H. pasishii var. purpureus hybrid (Hongjadan) have shown similar flower characteristics (flower size, flower background color, and pattern distribution) to those of H. pasishii with the exception of the pattern, size, and expression of the number of spots, and pattern shape of labellum including morphology. The flower of an offspring from Hongjadan x S. japonicum (K10) showed petals and sepals without pattern, red flecks, red spot, and red sectors. The shape and back ground color of labellum were similar to those of Hongjadan and S. japonica. The results of this study will be helpful for breeding new cultivars of Sedirea japonica.
This study was investigated to develop mass evaluation system for the contents of crude protein, oil and fatty acid in soybean germplasm using NIRS. NIRS equations were created with 345 soybeans, multiple correlation coefficients of crude protein, oil, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acid between data obtained from NIRS and quantitative analysis were 0.983, 0.969, 0.592, 0.514, 0.978, 0.961 and 0.957, respectively. Equation statistics indicated that contents of crude protein, oil and unsaturated fatty acid except palmitic and stearic acid in soybean seed were suitable for determination by NIRS. Those NIRS equations were applied to examine crude protein, oil and unsaturated fatty acid of 854 soybean landraces from Korea. The average contents and ranges of crude protein and oil were 39.2% with a range of 33.7-47.0% and 15.0% with a range of 9.8-20.3%, individually. In addition, those of oleic, linoleic and linolenic acid were 21.4% with a range of 12.1-30.2%, 55.6% with a 47.8-62.3% and 8.1% with a range of 5.9-10.7% respectively. We conducted quantitative analysis to reconfirm with IT154552 (45.1%) and IT023955(46.9%) above 45% of crude protein, the results were similar from NIRS (45.2%, 47.0%). NIRS data for protein from this study made no difference with lab data, which would be useful for mass evaluation. There was negative correlation (-0.203) between crude protein and oil, positive correlation (0.379) between crude oil and oleic acid, and significantly negative correlation (-0.879) between oleic and linoleic acid.
Early maturing glutinous rice lines with giant embryo were developed using anther culture. Deuraechan, mid-late maturing high-yielding japonica rice variety with resistance against rice stipe virus (RSV), bacterial blight (BB), and lodging, and Chenghyangna ge, early maturing glutinous rice germplasm with giant embryo were used the parents. F2 seeds from the cross between Deuraechan and Chenghyangna ge with glutinous endosperm and giant embryo were selected and propagated to F2 population. In F2 population, anther culture was conducted using the panicles from the early maturing plants. All doubled haploid (DH) lines showed early maturing, glutinous endosperm, and giant embryo phenotype. Through marker-assisted selections to Stvb-i and Xa3, 17 DH lines carrying both resistance genes were selected. Among 17 DH lines, six lines with more embryo size and better agronomic traits were selected and analyzed their characteristics. These lines were early maturing glutinous rice with giant embryo and showed enhanced yield, resistance against RSV and BB, and lodging, compared to previously developed giant embryo rice varieties. But they were vulnerable to preharvest sprouting which is important trait in early maturing rice. According to the texture and rapid viscosity analysis, DH lines were considered to have appropriate properties of cooked brown rice. They showed less hardness, gummniess, chewiness, and setback. Developed DH lines could be useful materials for diversification of cropping system and enhancing the brown rice consumption but the breeding efforts to improve the vulnerability against preharvest sprouting is required to apply for practical variety.
Blast resistance of 29 rice cultivars confirmed as a durable resistance in the evaluation of sequential planting from 2004 to 2006 was evaluated to nursery screening in 14 test sites during 11 years in Korea. The average disease severity (ADS) of 29 rice varieties against rice blast showed 3.5 degree; however, the difference of disease severity among the varieties was from 1.9 to 4.8. The 29 varieties were grouped into resistance less than 3.0 ADS degree including 12 varieties and moderate resistance over 3.1 ADS degree including 17 varieties. Among the 12 rice cultivars presented low ADS, 4 rice cultivars, Ungwang, Pungmi 1, Sinunbong 1, and Dasan 1 were constantly appeared high resistant reaction during 11 years in all test sites and the others were showed various diseases severity across the test years and the test sites. Twenty-one rice cultivars including Gopum were more variable among the test sites while the others were higher variable among the test years. These results indicated that durable resistance test against rice blast using sequential planting is a very efficient screening method to predict durability and nursery test for long periods and also useful method to predict indirectly durable resistance of rice cultivars.
Antigen production in plant is a safe and effective strategy for vaccine development. In this study, rice transformants were developed for oral vaccine against pigs diarrhea disease. DNA cassette composed with the cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) connected to the 987P-fasG, for stimulating a strong oral immune response, was introduced to rice through Agrobacterium mediated genetic transformation. Copy number analysis by TaqMan real-time PCR for transgenes revealed that transgene of 1 to 8 copies have been introduced into T1 and T2 rice seeds. The expression level of mRNA in the transformants T1 and T2 generations were up to 35 times higher than the reference value in the result of analysis by Quantitative real time-PCR. In addition, the callus cultured from rice transformants was confirmed that the introduced gene has been maintained till 9-month subculture duration. The amount of mRNA expression value was also confirmed in callus, which was maintained above 2.6 times compared with that of the standard control for a long time. These results provide that the introduced antigen for plant-based vaccine against bacterial diarrhea disease can be maintained in the callus as well as in the transgenic plant and suggest that the callus culture of plant transformant will be an effective way to obtain a plant-derived edible vaccine.
Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) has been used as a rapid analysis tool to many components in cereal grains. This study was to investigate the potential NIRS application for determination of components in Korean wheat. Main components of wheat quality are protein content, moisture content, SDS-sedimentation volume and ash content. Wheat has screened for quality, hardness of seed by NIRS in CIMMYT (International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center). NIRS calibration was used as a rapid and simultaneous analysis method to determine the wheat quality components. A total of 282 wheat samples, collected from a wide range of Korean wheat cultivation region for 2 years, were analyzed by NIRS. NIRS calibration of individual components were developed using first derivation, second derivation and modified partial least-squares regression and internal cross validation method. As a result, calibration formula of protein was y=0.937x+0.786, calibration formula of moisture was y=0.922x+0.911, calibration formula of ash was y=0.933x+0.08, calibration formula of SDS-sedimentation volume was y=0.947x+2.150. NIRS calibration for wheat quality may be useful for determining protein(R2 = 93.6), moisture(R2 = 91.6), SDS-sedimentation volume(R2 = 94.3), and ash(R2 = 93.4). This study shows that 4 calibrations of NIRS is a useful application in the accurate and rapid determination of wheat quality. Therefore, NIRS could be used to rapidly determine the quality contents of wheat for grade evaluation in a purchasing of wheat cultivation region.
This study was carried out to evaluate the proximate contents and compositions of amino acids and fatty acids in Korean 6 dent, 2 intermediate, and 3 semiflint maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids. The protein content of 11 Korean maize hybrids ranged from 9.0% (Pyeonggangok) to 11.5% (Jangdaok). The crude fat content varied from 4.0% (Pyeonggangok and Yanganok) to 5.6% (Kwangpyeongok), and the crude ash content was 1.3 (Jangdaok) ~ 1.6% (Cheonganok). Total starch contents of maize hybrids were determined in the range of 51.4% (Jangdaok) to 70.9% (Cheonganok). Major amino acid in maize varieties were glutamic acid (27.28~28.68%) and followed by proline, alanine, and aspartic acid. Fatty acid were mainly composed of oleic acid (C18:1, 23.55~31.47%) and linoleic acid (C18:2, 47.55~56.64%) in maize hybrids. Cheonganok, Cheongdaok, and Kwangpyeongok had high oleic acid composition among Korean maize hybrids. Also, Gangdaok and Kwangpyeongok had high composition of saturated fatty acid. Because kernel composition affects maize quality, it is important data for the maize breeding program and food processing.
As a first step of mapping genes conferring resistance to the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens Stål, in Gayabyeo using a population derived from a cross between Gayabyeo and Taebaegbyeo, we performed the whole genome resequencing of these two Tongil-type rice varieties. The amount of raw sequence data was about 18.5X109 bp and 17.9X109 bp in Gayabyeo and Taebaegbyeo, respectively. After quality trimming and read mapping onto Nipponbare reference genome sequence, 9.3X109 bp was mapped in Gayabyeo with mapping depth of 25.0X, and 9.5X109 bp was mapped in Taebaegbyeo with mapping depth of 25.5X. Between Gayabyeo and Nipponbare, 1,585,880 SNPs were detected, while 1,416,898 SNPs were detected between Taebaegbyeo and Nipponbare. Between Gayabyeo and Taebaegbyeo, 284,501 SNPs were detected. Among the SNPs between Gayabyeo and Taebaegbyeo, 21.2% were in genic region and 78.8% were in intergenic region. In CDS region, 15,924 SNPs were detected, among which synonymous SNPs covered 47.3% and non-synonymous SNPs covered 52.7%. We designed Cleaved Amplified Polymorphic Sequences (CAPS) markers with SNPs in the restriction enzyme recognition sites, and 20 CAPS markers were tested. Of the 20 markers, 19 markers showed polymorphism and one marker showed monomorphism between Gayabyeo and Taebaegbyeo. It is expected that sufficient DNA markers for mapping genes with a population derived from a cross between Gayabyeo and Taebaegbyeo can be developed based on the results of the study.
Objective of this study was to investigate the difference of cadmium (Cd) levels in rice grains from non-polluted fields and to define the gene associated with Cd uptake for producing safety food. Cd was analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). The average concentration of Cd in rice grains was 0.943 μg/kg and Cd levels ranged from 0.050 to 5.699 μg/kg. Genome-Wide Association study (GWAS) based on phenotype data for Cd levels was performed. However, results of GWAS were affected by subpopulation structure and caused false positive. Therefore, GWAS for rice ecotypes (temperate Japonica, tropical Japonica, Indica, Aus, Aromatic, and Admixture) was performed to minimize false positive. GWAS results showed that Os01g0611300, Os01g0611900, Os01g0611950, Os01g0612000, Os01g0612200, Os11g0444400, Os11g0444700, Os11g0444800, and Os11g0444900 genes have significant correlation with Cd levels in rice grains. The sequences of these genes were compared to sequence positions of each other gene (haplotype analysis). According to the results of haplotype analysis, Cd levels of non-synonymous group were higher than other groups and sequence of non-synonymous group was similar to that of Indica. These results were corresponding to the previous research result that Cd levels of Indica were higher than Japonica. Therefore, candidate genes detected through GWAS need to be examined by knock-out or cross breeding.
A new peanut variety ‘Danwon’(Arachis hypogaea ssp. fastigiata L.) was developed at the Department of Southern Area Crop Science, National Institute of Crop Science (NICS) in Milyang 2013. This was developed from the cross between ‘YG75’ with Shinpung type and ‘SP9617’ with larger grain. ‘Danwon’ is the first Shinpung typed short stem variety ever developed in Korea. It has 13 branches per plant and its length of main stem was 32 cm. Each pod has two grains with brown testa and long ellipse-shaped large kernel. Its yield components showed 40 pods per plant, 91 g of 100-seed-weight and 77% of pod shelling ratio in the regional yield trials (RYT). Seed quality showed 48.7% of crude oil and 26.9% of protein content. This variety showed more resistant to early and late leaf spot, web blotch, stem rot and lodging, compared to reference variety. In the regional yield trials for 3 years ‘Danwon’ was more productive than reference variety by 6% with 4.52 MT/ha for grain production.
Early maturity of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is an important character for double cultivating system with winter crops such as onion or garlic in southern area of Korea. Soybean cultivars released in the past, especially ‘Keunolkong’ was widely cultivated but it was weak at abiotic stress and low yield potential because of too short growing period and short stem height. ‘Hanol’, a new early maturing cultivar showing better abiotic stress tolerant and higher yield potential, was developed from the cross between SS91408 and ‘Hwaeomputkong’, and released in 2009. ‘Hanol’ is, compared to ‘Keunolkong’, Hanol’s growing period is five days longer and its height is 5cm higher. In addition, it showed better excess-water tolerant and 26.5g 100-seed weight. At regional adaptation yield trials (RYT) in six regions from 2007 to 2009, ‘Hanol’ showed 2.04 tons of seed per hectare, 14% higher than ‘Keunolkong’ (1.80ton/ha). ‘Hanol’ is promising for double cropping system with higher yield.
A new mandarin hybrid cultivar ‘Shinyegam’ was developed from a cross between ‘Kiyomi’ (Citrus unshiu × C. sinensis) and ‘Wilking’ (Citrus reticulata) at the Citrus Research Institute of the National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science in 2012. The ‘Jegam na No. 33’, a first selection seedling from the fruits obtained in 2008 was finally named ‘Shinyegam’ after field evaluation trials at five locations in Jeju island, Korea from 2010 to 2012. The tree vigor was intermediate and the tree was spreading in nature, similar to that of the ‘Kiyomi’ cultivar. The fruits produced were compressed to oblate and globose in shape, were a deep orange in color, and moderately weighed at 130 g. ‘Shinyegam’ produces fruit that mature in late December, and has few seeds, which are mono-embryonic. The average seed number of a fruit varied depending on the pollinator citrus tree. Cultivation of ‘Shinyegam’ along with the other cultivars possessing high pollen fertility resulted in seed numbers that was more than 20, while in the absence of a pollinator species the seed number was around 5. The fruit contained soluble solids at 11 to 12 ° Bx and the acidity was approximately 1% at maturity. The rind thickness of approximately 2.5 mm ensures easy peeling. The flesh is very tender and juicy, with a pleasant, aromatic flavor similar to that of ‘Wilking’ but is comparatively weak. ‘Shinyegam’ is moderately resistant to the citrus scab disease and melanose, but susceptible to citrus canker. Owing to the high quality of fruit, good aroma, and cold hardness characteristics, this cultivar is expected to satisfy consumer acceptability in terms of the diversity of the cultivar in open-field cultivation.
Geonpungmi is a new sweetpotato variety developed by Bioenergy Crop Research lnstitute in the National Institute of Crop Science (NICS) at RDA for table use in 2008. This variety was selected from the cross between Mokpo34 and Southern Queen. Two parents, Mokpo34 and Southern Queen, were crossed in 2002. Selection of elite line was performed for 2 years from 2003 to 2004. Preliminary and advanced yield trials were carried out from 2004 to 2005. The regional yield trials were conducted at six locations from 2006 to 2008. Geonpungmi has cordate leaf, greenish purple vine and petiole, elliptic storage root, dark purple skin and yellow flesh color of storage root. This variety is resistant to fusarium wilt and nematode. The starch value and total sugar content were 25.8% and 5.82%, respectively. Pasting temperature of starch in Geonpungmi was 74.7°C, and the retrogradation process is earlier than Yulmi. The average yield of storage root is 19.8 ton/ha in the regional yield trials, which is 3% lower than that of Yulmi. The number of marketable storage roots per plant was 2.6 and the average weight of one storage root was 154 g.
A new Phalaenopsis cultivar Hwasu 3551 was bred by Kyungpook National University, Korea, which produces young plants through tissue culture techniques. The new cultivar Hwasu 3551, showing the phenotype of pink colored large stripe type characteristics, was derived from crossing between Phalaenopsis Minho Princess and Minho Stripes. An elite individual number '03-35-51' later coined as 'Hwasu 3551' was selected among about 300 individual progenies for more than 2 years intensive selection process covering vegetative and flowering distinctiveness. In year 2006-2007, the 1st and 2nd characteristic analysis were carried out through performance and uniformity test. The Hwasu 3551 shows that flower color is bright clean pink (RHS#RP69D) and flower shape is formal type with size of 7.4 and 8.8cm in flower length and width, respectively. Hwasu 3551 is regarded as raceme flower type suitable large flower pot market. The leaf of Hwasu 3551 is rowing horizontally and about 22.3cm in length and 9.4cm in width, respectively. This cultivar also possesses no genetic variation, fast invitro propagation and easy growing due to vigorous growth habit. This Hwasu 3551 is registered (Reg.#:2917) to Korea Seed & Variety Service (KSVS) in 1st December, 2009 and PBR (plant breeder's right) is currently controlled by Sangmiwon Orchid Company, Korea.
To develop a dwarf turfgrass (Zoysia japonica) cultivar with artificial mutation-induced breeding method, the wild type control "Gosan" plants were exposed to a 30 Gy gamma ray source in 2010. The mutant lines showing short height were selected from successive generations. One of the resulting dwarf lines obtained was registered under the cultivar name of “Halla Green 1” (2016). The dwarf phenotype of the Halla Green 1 includes a reduction of the height by 4.5-fold, an increase in leaf and third internode lengths by about 6- and 2.3-fold, respectively, compared to the Gosan, and approximately 2.4-, 3.8-, and 1.5-fold relative to the Zenith, respectively. In addition, the Halla Green 1 had a sheath of darker green coloring compared to the light green Gosan and Zenith. The leaf blades of Gosan, Zenith and Halla Green 1 were all light green, whereas their stolons were purple, yellow-green and light purple, respectively. Trichomes presented on both adaxial and abaxial surfaces of the Gosan’s leaves, and only on the adaxial side of the Zenith’s leaves, but none on the Halla Green 1 leaves. The Halla Green 1 exhibited sufficiently distinct morphological traits when compared with the wild type Gosan and Zenith that the dwarf phenotype enhances its commercial viability.
Barley breeding program of RDA (Rural Development Administration) has been develop to new hulled barley variety that has been used for malt and beer material. Through this program, we developed new two-rowed covered barley, Imaeg, with disease resistant, lodging tolerant and good malt quality for beer and Korean traditional drink ‘Sikhye’ in 2013. Imaeg showed resistant to Barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV), lodging tolerant and early maturing. The regional yield trials were conducted for Imaeg as a breeding line ‘Iksan166’ during three years at four different regions. And then it was registered to Plant protection right, No. 5681 in 2015 after field experiment by KSVS (Korea Seed & Variety Service). Imaeg has I of vernalization and shorter stem length as 77cm than 7cm to control variety Hopum. Yield potential of Imaeg about 4.8ton/ha that higher about 3% in paddy field condition than control, however, it has no significant difference. In quality examination for beer usage, Imaeg has higher 1,000 grain weight (45.6g) and higher assortment ratio (93.6%) than those of Hopum as 42.6g and 90.4% respectively. In malt quality, Imaeg showed higher soluble protein, Kolbach index and diastatic power than those of Hopum significantly. In addition, Imaeg has better ‘Sikhye’ malt quality significantly in lightness of grain (58.4 L value) and growth rate (216.8%) than those of Hopum as 54.3 (L value) and 177.5% respectively. Imaeg would be suitable for cultivation at the area above -4°C of daily minimum temperature in January in Korean peninsula.
The limited use of barley for food is mostly due to undesirable color and unfamiliar flavor of barley based food products. So, preventing the browning is very important in order to increase the consumption of barley. ‘Yeongbaekchal’is a new naked waxy barley cultivar which is not get discolored. It was developed by the National Institute of Crop Science, RDA in 2013. It was derived from the cross between‘Radiant’which is a proanthocyanidin free and ‘Saechalssal’ which has characteristics of winter hardness, lodging tolerance, waxy endosperm and good cooking. The initial cross was done in 2006 and the selected line, ‘Iksan116’(HB16953-B-B-7), had no proanthocyanidin and showed good quality characteristics under yield trial test from 2012 to 2013. Heading and maturing date of ‘Yeongbaekchal’ were 3days late than those of ‘Saechalssal’. It had 90 cm of culm length and 5.0 cm of spike length. It showed 840 spikes per m2, 63 grains per spike, 25.1 g of 1,000-grain weight, and 831 g of test weight. ‘Yeongbaekchal' showed better resistance to BaYMV (Barley yellow mosaic virus) and similar water absorption rate and expansion rate with the check cultivar. Its average yield of the pearled grain in the regional yield trial was 3.42 MT/ha in paddy field, which were 5% lower than that of the check cultivar. It showed a little discoloration during the storage after cooked.
‘Pareunsuperjami’, a early maturing and blackish purple pigmented rice cultivar, was developed from a cross between Heugjinju and Suwon 425. During selected by pedigree breeding method until F8 generation, a promising line, C3GM(CG2-2-70-1-1-3-2-B), was selected and advanced by early maturing and contents of cyanidin 3-glucoside. Advance line designated as the name of 'KNOU 3'. This variety headed on July. 30, 115 days to heading after sowing. The culm length and the panicle length of 'Pareunsuperjami' was 63.5cm and 21.3cm, respectively. The number of panicle per hill was 9.4 and the number of grain per panicles was 98.0. The ratio of fertility of ' Pareunsuperjami’ was about 80.5% and 1,000-grain weight was about 18.8 g, heavier than that of ‘Heugjinju’. ' Pareunsuperjami ' has 3~4 times higher Cyanidine-3-glucoside(C3G) contents compared with ‘Heugjinju’.
This study was carried out to create new waxy corn variety using anthocyanins germplasm including 13 ornamental maize stocks, purple corn and two parental lines of Mibaek2. First, we made anthocyanin husk population for sustainable breeding from 13 ornamental stocks for 6 years from 2001 and then crossed purple corn with a dark purple kernel in 2007. We crossed this hybrid with two parental lines of Mibaek2, a good edible quality waxy corn, in 2007/2008 dry season nursery for additional breeding in Thailand. The anthocyanin-rich waxy lines derived from these hybrids were self-fertilized seven times and made single cross hybrids until 2011. These hybrids were evaluated on 2 or 3 places in Gangwon-do for next two years. One selected elite hybrid was named Cheongchunchal and applied for registration of new waxy corn variety in March 2014. Total anthocyanins content is zero in Mibaek2, 737 in Miheugchal, 18,809 mg/kg in Cheongchunchal. This variety is meaningful as health food and high-value industrial material.
A black rice variety ‘Pareunsuperjami’ developed from a conventional breeding method is an early maturing variety, of which heading time is 113 days after sowing, about the 30th of July. Its culm length and 1000 grain weights are 64.6 cm and 18.6 g, respectively, with the heavier grain weight than that of Heugjinju. ‘Pareunsuperjami’ has the higher content of cyaniding 3-glucoside (C3G) and strong antioxidant activity, compared to other color rice varieties. The highest content of total polyphenol extracted by a 70% of ethanol was found in the grain of Pareunsuperjami rice among other varieties, such as Daeripjami, Heugjinju, Daeripbyeo. The flavonoid and C3G contents were in the order of Pareunsuperjami > Daeripjami > Heugjinju > Daeripbyeo with a 5-fold higher C3G in Pareunsuperjami (1,038 mg/100g) than that of Heugjinju (204 mg/100g). The highest radical scavenging activity of 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid, ABTS) was observed in the grain of Pareunsuperjami rice, about 383. The highest ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant capacity (AEAC) was also observed in the grain of Pareunsuperjami (383), followed by Daeripjami (356) and Heugjinju (275). The highest DPPH radical scavenging activity in vitro was also found in the grain of Pareunsuperjami. The higher hydroxyl radical scavenging activity was also found in the grain of Pareunsuperjami than that of Daeripbyeo with no significant difference than other color rice varieties. These results suggest that there is a close relation between high content of C3G and strong antioxidant activity, and thus the Pareunsuperjami is a good source of natural antioxidants as a functional staple food.