Uganda is blessed with favorable agricultural conditions; annual average temperatures 18-28°C, rainfall 1,300-1,800mm, cultivation area 99,018Km2, and bountiful labor. Agriculture is the most important sector in the country and it contributes 22.4% to GDP, accounts for 40% of exports, and employs 65.6% of the total population. The major crops for dometic use are plantain banana, maize, and cassava and coffee, tea, tobacco, and cotton are mainly exported. Despite of these favorable natural conditions, agricultural productivity of Uganda is relatively low. Yielding reaches 1/2 in maize, 1/3 in rice and peanut, 1/4 in sweet potato, and 1/6 in potato per hectare compared to Korea. However, according to research conducted by domestic and international institutes, crop yields can possibly increase 2 to 10 times in many crops. Constrains of productivity are mostly due to poor seeds, inadequate pest & disease management, loss of soil fertility, lack of irrigation, improper post-harvest handling, and underdeveloped cultivation technology. To improve its production and productivity, which is the primary goal of Uganda's agricultural policy, appropriate budget allocation as planned and investment in R&D and extension are considered essential.
Russia has very rich biodiversity because it is spread geo-morphologically regions which have very diverse climate character as well as it had carried out to do 1,842 times collecting missions in the world. The plant genetic resources of N.I. Vavilov Institute Gene bank collection have been conserved over 324 thousand germplasm accessions of 155 botanical families, 376 genera, 2,169 species. PGR in VIR have conserved in paper bags in aluminum boxes at room temperature for active working collections and also other PGRs were conserved in Long-term storage at – 100C and short-term storage at+40C at aluminum bags in plastic boxes from 2002. Results of studies of genetic potential of cultivated crops and their wild relatives have been processed into “Cultivated flora” and monographs, including new data of phylogeny, taxonomy, genetics, cytology, biochemistry, molecular biology, physiology, immunity. As a result of primary evaluation every year around 1000 new sources for breeding have been selected. The germplasm in VIR are distributed for 20,000 accessions per year for the new breed upbringing and genetic resources research is about 50%. Therefore, securing of resources is steadily seed with a variety of climates, but to secure the VIR collected from all over the world is worth. In addition, there is a lot of variety of vegetables and minor cereals ensure crops, the genetic resources of vegetables and minor cereals are conserved in VIR will be able to take advantage of a variety of vegetables and minor cereals resource utilization study, if used to conserved the landraces in VIR.
The Japanese government, on the basis of the Food, Agriculture and Rural Areas Basic Act, announced the 4th Basic Plan for Food, Agriculture and Rural areas, at the same time the third Basic Plan for Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Research in March 2015. The Basic Plan is configured as improvement of food self-sufficiency rate, a stable food supply, agricultural maintenance and development, rural promotion. The new target for the calorie-based food self-sufficiency ratio has been lowered from the previous 50 percent by 2020 to 45 percent by 2025. The production target for table rice has been lowered, but production targets for rice for flour and rice for feed have been raised significantly - five times and 10 times the more than current production by 2025, respectively. The 4th Basic Plan included the important measures of 24 and the details practice challenges of 50 should be intensively promoted for the next five years. The new Research Basic Plan set 21 key targets research and development to solve problems promptly faced by producers with the aim of increasing income in agriculture and rural communities and 11 priority targets research and development to be steadily promoted under medium- to long-term strategy. In addition, it announced the necessary measures of 10 at three areas in order to promote more efficiency and effective in the Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Research. In Korea, it refers to the announcement contents of Japan where there is a need to formulate a development plan for Agriculture, Rural Areas and Food Industry Development Plan that meets the Korean situation.
Rice is the most important staple food and the consumption is increasing in Europe and America. It is expected that the rice price will be increased due to the unstable supply and demand because of abiotic stress. Experts expect that the rice supply of Korea will be deficient in 2050 for the reason of global warming. Conventional breeding methods need to be supplemented with recent biotechnology to meet the problem such as growing population and climate change. Using rice biotechnology, a number of agronomically important traits and nutritional value have been improved. In this paper, the current situation of rice cultivation and production situation and supply and consumption in the major country were investigated to prepare future food security. Also the research trends of rice biotechnology and kinds of transformed rice as well as safety issues were reviewed by considering the scientific, social and economic values of rice.
The purpose of this study is to find out the economic impacts of the CASSAVA project, IPM project, Post-Harvest project, and RICE project among 12 projects that are being worked on by the Asian Food & Agriculture Cooperation Initiative(AFACI) established in 2009. Reliable data such as FAO STAT etc. was utilized for the analysis on the economic impacts of each project and the data of an investigation on principal investigators of the nation who participate in each project was used for the analysis of the additional necessary information. According to the economic impacts analysis result, the economic impacts will occur and can be measured as an economic costs as follows: a total of $1,187,404 in Thailand for the next 19 years through the CASSAVA project, $2,358,299 in Indonesia for the next 18 years through the Post-Harvest project, $62,451,317 in Vietnam for the next 13 years through the Post- Harvest project and $60,629,555 in Nepal for the next 13 years through the RICE project. The AFACI project is a small project that annually supports each country that participates each project with approximately $ 10,000. Despite the small-scale project, the estimated result of economic impacts showed that great economic impacts occurred for its scale of the support. Thus, it is deemed that a search for ongoing methods that contribute to the role expansion of Korea and the agricultural development of the recipient country will be needed through the expansion and complementation of a low-cost and high efficiency Official Development Assistance(ODA) such as the AFACI project.
This study was conducted, using 10 high-quality rice varieties, at 24 experimental sites in 2013 and 2014 to analyze the comparative relationship among head rice yield (HRY), its attributes and sub-attributes. In the data set pooled across sites, years and varieties, where regional and varietal variations were combined, HRY was associated with milled rice yield (MRY) more closely than percentage of head rice (PHR) although both MRY and HRY demonstrated significant relationship with HRY. In the PHR higher than 80%, compared to 80% or less, fitness of the regression between PHR and HRY decreased. MRY and PHR, the two attributes of HRY, were not significantly associated with each other. Regional variation of HRY was associated only with MRY while varietal variation of HRY was related to both MRY and PHR. HRY and MRY showed regional variation greater than varietal variation meanwhile PHR demonstrated regional and varietal variations in a similar range. In the data set pooled across sites, years and varieties, MRY demonstrated relationship with spikelets per square meter (SPIK) in a higher significance than percentage of grain filling (PGF) and 1000-brown rice weight (TBRW). Both regional and varietal variations of MRY showed significant relationship only with SPIK, neitherwith PGF nor TBRW. It is concluded that regional variation of HRY was affected by MRY, varietal variation by both MRY and PHR, and region-variety combined variation mainly by MRY.
This study was conducted the comparative analysis on quality and rice bread process suitability properties by four particle size classification of dry-milled flours for four rice varieties. Dry-milled rice flours were prepared by dry milling and classified according to particle size using 100, 150, 200, and 250 mesh sieves. The mean particle size by four particle size classification of 60 ~ 100 mesh, 100 ~ 150 mesh, 150 ~ 200 mesh, 200 ~ 250 mesh exhibited 118.9 μm, 87.4 μm, 65.3 μm, 46.1 μm, respectively. The particle size of dry-milled rice flours was the finer, the damaged starch content was the higher (r = − 0.570*). The particle size also had significant negative correlation with the water absorption index (r = − 0.533*, r = − 0.593*), and water solubility index (r = − 0.857**, r = − 0.584*). Dry-milled rice flours with particle size of 60 ~ 70 μm, passed through 150 and 200 mesh sieves exhibited the highest specific volume of rice bread. Whereas, the dry-milled rice flour with finer particle size above 200 mesh showed the lowest specific volume of rice bread. These results will be applied as a quality standard to aid in the selection of the most suitable dry-milled rice flour for baking.
Human tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) is responsible for fibrin-specific plasminogen activation and plays a key role in fibrinolysis thereby aiding breakdown of blood clots in the vasculature. In the present study, in order to develop a system for production of recombinant st-PA and t- PAHis6 proteins in transgenic rice seeds, a DNA fragment encoding t-PA gene was selected and cloned to a plant binary vector (pMJ21) harboring a rice GluB1 promoter, an N-terminal signal peptide of the rice glutelin B1 protein and a Pin II terminator. The constructed plasmid was transformed into Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404 (pSB1) to facilitate introduction into rice callus. The insertion of the st-PA and t-PAHis6 genes into the genome of transgenic rice seeds and their transcripts were confirmed using PCR, and Southern blot as well as RT-PCR, respectively. The highest level of recombinant st-PA expression as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was found to be 2,916 ng/total soluble protein (mg) in transgenic rice seeds. The amount of recombinant proteins expressed in transgenic plants was estimated to range from 634 ~ 2,916 ng/TSP mg (st-PA) and 925 ~ 2,640 ng/TSP mg(t- PAHis6), respectively. Immuno-blot analysis of transgenic rice seeds revealed single bands of approximately 68-kDa representing recombinant st-PA and t-PAHis6 proteins. These results demonstrate the expression and in vivo activity of recombinant st-PA and t-PAHis6 in transgenic rice seeds. This study is a promising endeavor for production of recombinant pharmaceutical proteins using rice seed system.
Sesame is queen of oil seed crops and widely cultivated in Asia and Africa. The aim of this study was to develop a mini sub core set representing the diverse germplasm of sesame and to assess the genetic diversity, population structure and phylogenetic relationship of the resulted sub core set to be used in whole genome resequencing platform. One hundred twelve accessions out of 277 accessions were selected by the PowerCore program. A total of 155 alleles were captured from the 158 alleles detected in the primary core population, and rare alleles and specific alleles were also maintained in the sub core set accessions representing almost 100% of the primary core population. Among the sub core set accessions, four sub populations were observed with some admixture accessions. Although the genetic diversity of Pop-1 which includes most accessions from Korea is relatively lower than that of other three sub populations, it can maintain maximum number of accessions in the sub core set with the same percentage as in the primary core set probably because of the specific features of these accessions. Based on this framework of genetically defined populations, the effective use and conservation management of Sesamum indicum for crop improvement might be possible.
One hundred seventy two accessions of safflower, collected in four countries were investigated for their morphological and biochemical characters in 2014. The accessions were categorized into two groups; South-Central (S-C) Asia and South-West (S-W) Asia, and each group was represented the accessions of two countries. Variation in morphological and biochemical characters was observed between two groups of accessions. The average value of seed weight and range of variability were higher in S-C Asia accessions while S-W accessions exhibited the variation in plant height, leaf length and days to flowering. The average value of oleic and total oil content were higher in S-C Asia accessions, and the values were 19.8%, and 231.4 mg.g-1, respectively, while the range of variability for total oil content was higher in S-W accessions. Plant height exhibited a significant positive correlation with days to flowering (r = 0.625**). Palmitic acid had positively correlated with stearic acid (r = 0.282**) and linoleic acid (r = 0.444**). Oleic and linoleic acid showed a strong negative correlation (r = -0.977**). The first three principal components explained 57% of the total variation. Morphological and biochemical variation exist in different groups of accessions could be useful to breeder for developing new safflower cultivars with high oil quantity and quality.
Soft rot caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum is a destructive disease of the fleshy storage tissues of vegetables and ornamentals that occurs worldwide. This study was carried out to find an effective method for evaluating soft rot disease on a massive scale in greenhouse and to screen resistant accession for the disease with lettuce germplasm. Spray method with 5 mL suspension of 109 colony formation unit per milliliter (CFU/mL) of P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum per plant at the 6 ~ 7 foliage leaf stage was the most effective to evaluate soft rot disease. We evaluated resistance to soft rot using this method for 812 accessions of lettuce germplasm introduced from 52 countries. As the results, withered rates for each germplasm accession ranged from 0 to 100 percent and among 812 accessions of lettuce germplasm investigated, 21 accessions showed very high resistance. Among the 21 accessions, 11 accessions were from Korea, each 2 accessions were from USA and Israel, and each 1 accession was from Afghanistan, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Pakistan, and Uzbekistan. Accessions from Israel, Syria, and Afghanistan showed high resistance level. Among very high resistant 21 accessions, 12 were landraces, 6 were cultivars, and 3 were wild relatives. The 21 accessions were consisted of 12 leaf lettuce, 5 romaine type, 3 wild relatives, and 1 butterhead lettuce. Leaf lettuce accessions showed the highest resistance level while crisphead lettuce accessions had the lowest resistance level among the cultivated lettuce types. Wild relatives had greater resistance than landraces and cultivars. These accessions which resistance to soft rot will be used for soft rot resistance breeding program in lettuce.
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of various mulching materials on growth and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench). Three kinds of polyethylene (PE) mulching materials were used which are: black (Black), green (Green), and white and black on both sides (White), black non-woven fabric (Fabric), and barley straw (Straw) and the control plot (Control) were also used in this study. The change of soil temperature was observed in various mulching materials with Green showing the highest average temperature of 24.4o, followed by Black > Fabric > Control > White > Straw. The variation of plant length,, aboveground weight, and root weight were constant in the order of Green > Black > White > Fabric > Control > Straw. Total yield (number of fruits) were 281,000 in Green which was the highest yield, and the least was from Straw which was 62.3% of Green. Total weight of fruits in Green was 395 kg which was the heaviest, and in Straw was least with 226 kg Hence, the weight of fruits
The aim of this study was to compare ultrasonic measured traits (Eye muscle area : EMA, backfat thickness : BF and marbling score : MS) of Hanwoo cows by months of age and periods around 1st calving. The data used in this study were taken 2,636 cows which were measured from 20 months old to 28 months old and within 5 months around 1st calving. According to comparison of cows' month of age, ultrasonic measured EMA, BF and MS were not significantly different between 21 months old and 26 months old, 21 months old and 25 months old and 23 months old and 27 months old, respectively. According to comparison of periods around 1st calving, ultrasonic measured EMA, BF and MS were not significantly different between -45 days and 30 days, -15 days and 75 days, -105 days and 90 days around 1st calving, respectively. The selection of cows could be possible based on the phenotypic ultrasonic measurement performance if the traits are measured between 23-month old and 25-month old and between - 15 days and 30 days around 1st calving.
Soil salinity at newly reclaimed land in west coast of Korea is highly variable and depending on soil characteristics and weather conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the spatiotemporal distribution characteristics changes on soil electrical conductivity and exchangeable sodium percentage in Saemangeum newly reclaimed land. Experimental sites was selected at Gyehwa (35o75'N, 126o60'E) in Saemangeum reclaimed land and their dominant soil series was Munpo (coarseloamy, mixed, non-acid, mesic, typic Fluvaquents). Soil samples were periodically collected at 0 ~ 20 cm and 20 ~ 40 cm layer from each site. Soil electrical conductivity had a wide range from 0.15 to 41.76 dS/m, which was variable according to the weather conditions. The average soil electrical conductivity from March 2014 to 2015 was 6.4 and 3.4 dS/m at Gyehwa in Seamangeum reclaimed land. Calcium concentration in soil solution was negatively correlated with soil electrical conductivity and soluble sodium. Soluble sodium concentration had great variations and it was the most influencing single factor for temporal variations of soil electrical conductivity regardless of soil textural properties. The characteristics of Saemangeum reclaimed land had different shares of saline and sodic properties during the experimental period. Our results indicate that persistent monitoring and modeling on soil salinity at coastal tide land is fundamental and the results can provide some useful information for deciding management plans for diverse utilization or to reduce salt damage for stable crop production at reclaimed tidal land.
The cultivation of green manure crops provide various beneficial influences on agricultural systems. However, there have been few studies on the use of green manure crops on upland field in Korea. The purpose of this study is the selection of green manure crop species suitable for subsequent upland crops. For this study, two leguminous green manure crops and four graminaceous crops were used as following: (1) hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth), (2) crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum), (3) barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), (4) rye (Secale cereale L.), (5) triticale (Triticosecale wittmack), (6) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Plant-available nitrogen (PAN) release from each green manure crops was estimated using PAN prediction equation. Graminaceous green manure crops produced more biomass (dry plant matter) up to 1.5 times than leguminous crops. However, PAN % was much higher in leguminous crops due to their high nitrogen content (2.4 ～ 4.4%). In late may, hairy vetch was estimated to provide PAN as much as 11kg/10a which meet nitrogen need for nearly all (except waxy corn) upland crops used in this study. However, PAN from crimson clover and graminaceous green manure crops was much lower mainly due to low biomass production and low nitrogen content, respectively. Overall, hairy vetch could be most appropriate green manure crop for upland crop cultivation in Korea.