Mimemodes Reitter, 1876 and Mimemodes emmerichi Mader, 1937 are reported from Korea for the first time and a historical review of the taxonomic position of this genus is provided. M. emmerichi was found on the island of Guleopdo in the West Sea of Korea, bringing the number of species within the Korean Monotomidae to five. In this study, we provide a key to the genera within the Korean Monotomidae, a redescription of M. emmerichi Mader, and illustrations of its habitus and aedeagus.
Fifty potato cultivars were screened for potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae Thomas infestation degree in the field. Aphid honey dew secretion and contents of foliar substances (glycoalkaloids, total nitrogen, Ca, K and Mg) of the cultivars were measured in the laboratory to analyze the correlation between infestation degrees and those factors. The number of aphids ranged from 4.1 to 31.4 per five leaves. The lower density (less than 5 aphids) was found on cvs. Jidose, Recent, and Sebago. The aphid secreted highest (40.3 droplets) and lowest (15.7 droplets) honeydew on cvs. Jopoong and Anco, respectively. Degree of infestation is positively correlated to glycoalkaloids and total nitrogen contents of the potato leaf.
Spring phenology of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta, was monitored using sex pheromone traps in apple cultivating areas. Their occurrence was earlier in southern areas and their population sizes were significantly different among orchards even in a local cultivating zone. The overwintering populations appeared to move between local orchards, based on the fact that monitoring data obtained at the sites between orchards were similar to those of nearby orchards. However, within orchards, these adult movements appeared to decrease and showed skewed occurrences at the side of upwind direction or close to neighboring orchards. At initial occurrence peak (April 20-25), the overwintering populations of the different localities were collected and analyzed in their genetic distances. PCR-RAPD analysis indicated that there were significant genetic differences among the overwintering populations of G. molesta. This genetic differentiation of overwinterin populations may be due to genetic bottleneck following differential selection pressures against the subpopulations of G. molesta during winter on the basis of the RAPD analysis that each early spring population was significantly different to its previous fall population in the same locality.
In order to find phenological change of butterflies due to global warming, we analyzed weekly monitoring data of butterfly at Gwangneung forest in 1958 and 2004. It was tested whether the timing of first flight and mean flight of butterflies in 2004 became earlier due to global warming compared with those in 1958 and whether the duration of flight period became longer. No significant difference was found in timing of first flight and in duration of flight period between 1958 and 2004. Furthermore, species showing delayed timing of mean flight was more abundant than species showing earlier timing of mean flight. Hence, the results do not confirm the predicted changes of phenology due to global warming. We discussed reasons on the non-apparent phenological changes despite the increase of temperature, and the problems and solutions in butterfly study on Korean butterfly fauna in utilization of butterflies as indicator for global warming.
Development of T. urticae was studied on the leaves of eggplant grown in hydroponics with potash contents of 0 mM, 2 mM, 6 mM, and 12 mM. As the levels of potash increased, that of nitrogen decreased and that of P, K, Mg increased in the plant. While contents of crude protein and fiber decreased, those of ash and sugar increased. Carbohydrate content was the highest at 2 mM. Water contents increased as those of potash increased with the exception at 0 mM. Biomass was the heaviest as 552.7 g at 6 mM and the lightest at 0 mM. Leaf thickness and the content of chlorophyll increased as the content of potash increased. Laboratory leaf disc tests provided with various potash levels revealed that feeding and oviposition preferences of T. urticae were high at 6 mM and 12 mM, respectively. Ratio of damaged leaf by naturally occurring T. urticae on eggplants of 99 days post-transplant in the greenhouse was the highest at 6 mM. Development of immature stages of T. urticae shortened as the levels of potash increased with a less tendancy in male than in female. No differences were detected in adult longevity and oviposition period but the number of eggs laid was the most as 84.7 at 6 mM and the least as 40.6 at 0 mM. There were no differences in the rate of egg hatch and the ratio of sex. R<SUB>o</SUB>, r<SUB>m</SUB>, and were the highest at 6 mM and the lowest at 0 mM. T and Dt were the λ lowest at 6 mM and the highest at 0 mM. There was a descending trand of T. urticae developmet when levels of potash either gets high or low in the hydroponics.
Development of T. urticae was studied on the leaves of eggplant grown in hydroponics with silica contents of 0 mM, 1.7 mM, and 5.1 mM. As the levels of silica increased, those of N, P, K, Ca, and Mg decreased and those of Si increased. While contents of calory, crude protein, carbohydrates, and vitamin C decreased, those of ash, fiber, and sugar increased. Biomass and content of cholorophyll decreased as the level of silica increased while leaves became thicker. Laboratory leaf disc tests provided with various silica levels revealed that feeding preference of T. urticae was the highest at 0 mM and the lowest at 1.7 mM. The oviposition preference decreased as the levels of silica increased, on the lower leaf appeared to hinder the feeding and the oviposition of T. urticae. The development slowed down both in female and male. Adult life span of female shortend as the silica level increased and that of male was the longest as 5.7 days at 0mM and the shortest at 1.7 mM. Oviposition period also shortened as the silica content increased. The number of eggs laid was the most as 86.3 at 1.7 mM while average oviposition per day was the least as 7.7 at 0 mM. No differences in hatchability was detected whereas the ratio of sex was the highest as 0.71 in favor of female at 0mM. R<SUB>o</SUB> and T decreased as the levels of silica increased. Rm and was the lowest at 5.1 mM while Dt was the longest as λ 1.8271 at 5.1 mM and the shortest as 1.6991 days at 1.7 mM. Silica content in eggplant turned to affect the development of T. urticae, however, it deterred T. urticae from feeding and oviposition and the rate of increase tended to decrease due to lesser nutrients in the eggplant leaf.
Development of T. urticae was studied on the leaves of eggplant grown in hydroponics with nitrogen contents of 5 mM, 10 mM, 30 mM, and 60 mM. As the nitrogen level in hydroponics increased, it also increased in the plant whereas that of K, Ca, and Mg decreased. More nitrogen in hydroponics resulted in increased contents of water and crude protein, and decreased ash, carbohydrates, and fibers within the plant. Biomass was the heaviest as 989.5 g at 10 mM and the lightest at 60 mM. Leaf thickness and the content of chlorophyll increased as the content of nitrogen increased. Laboratory leaf disc tests obtained from plants grown at various nitrogen levels revealed that feeding and oviposition preferences of T. urticae were high at 30 mM and low at 5 mM. Ratio of damaged leaf by naturally occurring T. urticae on eggplants of 99 days post-transplant in the greenhouse was the highest as 98% at 60 mM. Degrees of damage on eggplants with and without T. urticae infestation turned up more as the differences in the levels of nitrogen in the hydroponics get bigger. No definite differences in the rate of T. urticae development was found between nitrogen treatment levels but, mortalities in immature stages dropped as the nitrogen levels went up. Adult longevity was the longest of 11.9 for female and 6.9 days for male at 60 mM. Oviposition period was also the longest as 11.7 days at 60 mM and shortened as the level of nitrogen decreased. The number of eggs oviposited was the most as 144.4 at 60 mM while it was the least as 41.0 at 5 mM. Sex ratio was 0.75 in favor of female at 10 mM. R<SUB>o</SUB> and T increased, no trends were detected in r<SUB>m</SUB> and , while Dt decreased as the levels of nitrogen went up.
This study was conducted to develop an organic control method of two spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) by using cooking oil and yolk mixture (COY) through evaluating its acaricidal activity in laboratory and green house. In laboratory, there is no significant difference in acaricidal activity against T. urticae within the COY including soybean, canola (rape seed), sunflower and olive oil. The acaricidal activity against T. urticae. increased from 17.6% to 94.1% as the COY became concentrated between 0.1% to 1%. The COY acricidal activity was effected by the quantity of treatment according to application methods. The COY dealt with T. urticae eggs presented 95% of the ovicidal activity. In rose greenhouse damaged by T. urticae, the COY (0.3%) was sprayed three times and resulted in the high control value of mites between 69.0% to 89.6%.
A wax-typed pheromone dispenser has been developed and applied to control outbreak of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta, in apple orchard. To optimize its application technique, this study analyzed effect of different amounts of the pheromone dispenser on mating disruption (‘MD’) of G. molesta. Different pheromone dispenser amounts significantly influenced the MD effect assessed by cumulative male adult catches monitored respectively by sticky delta trap and food trap, and resulted in differential damage on host plants. In a field test during entire growing season, a standard amount (120 g per 0.117 ㏊) of wax-typed pheromone dispenser was proved to be effective to suppress outbreak of G. molesta adults and to prevent host plant damage as much as a current commercial MD product (Isomate<SUP>Ⓡ</SUP>). This study also demonstrated an effectiveness of deployment of food trap barriers around MD-treated area to prevent immigration of mated females from outside untreated areas. These results indicate that the wax-typed pheromone dispenser can be applied to control field G. molesta populations and its co-application with food trap barriers would be optimal to maximize MD efficacy.
Toxicity of 10 registered insecticides and 6 fertilizers were tested against 3<SUP>rd</SUP> larva and adults of Korean firefly, Luciola lateralis Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Lampyridae). All experiments were tested at the recommended concentration of each inescticides by producer. MEP, PAP, Acephate, Fenthion, and Diazinon, which were organophates, a mixtures combined with Burofezin fenobucarb, Cartap ･･ buprofezin, and Thiamethoxam (Neonicotinoids), Fipronil (Phenylpyrazoles) showed more 80.0% mortality on larva and adults of L. lateralis. However, tebufenozide (I.G.R) showed low mortality of 33.3%. LC₅₀ (ppm) value of Assit, Cartapㆍbuprofezin, Fenthion and PAP were showed 1.03 ppm, 1.90 ppm, 10.26 ppm, 0.98 ppm, respectively, against 3<SUP>rd</SUP> larva of L. lateralis. Effects against eggs showed very high toxicity. Otherwise, tebufenozide (I.G.R) was showed hatchability of 100%. Toxicity of Urea fertilizer, Ammonium sulfate, Potassium chloride, Fused phosphate, Complex fertilizer and Silicate fertilizer were showed the mortality with 27.3%, 56.7%, 73.3%, 0.0%, 0.0%, 0.0%, respectively, when exposed 72 hrs after treatment.
Road-map for the environmental friendly integrated pest management (IPM) of insect pests was drawn up on the strawberry vinyl-houses of farmer’s field. Major insect pests were occurred Tetranychus urticae and Aphis gossypii during the strawberry plant seeding in the vinyl house and open field. Also, same insect pests were occurred in the vinyl house during harvesting season of strawberry. For the control of T. urticae and A. gossypii, Phytoseiulus persimilis and Aphidius colemani as natural enemies were input to the vinyl house, respectively. However, because these natural enemies could not control insect pest populations, acaricide and insecticide were sprayed. Then natural enemies were input again in the vinyl house. Natural enemies could not endure the intense cold and differences of temperature and relative humidity between day and night during strawberry harvesting season. So, their behavior and control activity of pests were more decrease than pests. Firstly, natural enemies are input in the vinyl house during the early breeding season of strawberry, secondly, acaricides and insecticide are sprayed for the control of mites and aphids, respectively, during the middle breeding season in the hard winter. Finally, natural enemies are re-input in the vinyl house during the middle and late breeding season.
Repellent and acaricidal activities of eucalyptus oil, permethrin, and DEET against Leptotrombidium pallidum larvae, which are a vector transmitting tsutsugamushi disease, were evaluated under laboratory conditions using a filter paper impregnated method. The LD₅₀ values of eucalyptus oil and DEET were 0.025 and 0.018 ㎎/㎠, respectively while that of permethrin was higher than 0.2 ㎎/㎠. In the repellency test of these materials at 6.14 ㎎/㎠, eucalyptus oil gave complete repellency, and the larvae crossed the treated zone killed. But permethrin showed 60% repellency at 9.20 ㎎/㎠ and the mites croosed the zone were not killed. The percent repellency of DEET at 0.53 ㎎/㎠ was 8.3 and 2.8 times higher than that of permethrin and eucalyptus oil, respectively. The acaricidal activities of emulsifiable concentrates-pump sprayers containing the eucalyptus oil as an active ingredient were assayed. The emulsifiable concentrates containing 1% and 3% eucalyptus oil showed weak mortality at 1 hour after treatment, while all ones containing more than 6% oil produced 100% activity against L. pallidum larvae. The mortality also increased as exposure time to the concentrates increase. These results suggest that the potential of eucalyptus oil highly expected to be used as a control or repellent agent against L. pallidum larvae may be very high.
This study was surveyed the effects by pollinating activity of Apis mellifera and Bombus terrestris released in the paprika vinyl-houses. The foraging activity and behaviour of A. mellifera and B. terrestris visited on the paprika flowers were nearly alike. The pick times of pollinating activity by A. mellifera and B. terrestris were showed the hightest at 11:00 and 15:00, and 09:00 to 11:00, respectively. The rate of fruit set by A. mellifera and B. terrestris released for pollinating paprika were same level with 94%, and these rate were higher than the fruit setting rate which was 92% by fan operated. The qualities of paprika produced by pollinators released were higher than those by fan operated. And weight per fruit, number of seeds per fruit and economical profit per 2,310 ㎡ were over 10% higher than those by fan operated. Therefore the economical effects by the pollinating activities of A. mellifera and B. terrestris released in the paprika vinyl-houses were obviously demonstrated.
Ecological Characteristic of Glyphodes perspectalis was investigated in laboratory and field condition. Larvae of Glyphodes perspectalis had 6 instars, and color of head and body was black and yellowish green, respectively. Larval periods were 24 days. Egg was flat and round. Color of egg was transparent at an early stage, and became milky later. Color of pupa was yellowish green and became dark brown later. Pupal periods were 10.5 days. Adult of Glyphodes perspectalis emerged twice a year. First emergency was from early June to late June, and second from middle August to early September.
An unidentified moth was captured in sex pheromone traps of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta, especially at spring season in apple orchards and their vicinity. Though the captured males were similar in appearance to G. molesta males, they were easily distinguished by a marked difference in body size. Their occurrence pattern was also similar to that of overwintering G. molesta population from April to May, at which more males were captured in the pheromone traps installed in the vicinity of apple orchards than within apple orchards. After May, they were no longer captured in the pheromone traps. To investigate any larval damage due to this unidentified moth, molecular markers needed to be developed. Four PCR-RFLP markers originated from cytochrome b region of mitochondrial DNA could distinguish this unidentified moth from G. molesta.