In the present study, we reports four species of Noctuidae are reported for the first time from Korea: Hadennia obliqua (Wileman), Zanclognatha lui Han and Park, Premusia intrahens Walker, and Cucullia hostilis Broursin. The adults and genital characteristics of the species are briefly redescribed with illustrations and their biological and distributional notes are given as necessary.
We report a species of the tribe Eucosmini belonging to the family Tortricidae for the first time from China: Semnostola magnifisa (Kuznetsov) and add four species for the Northeast Chinese fauna: Ancylis badiana (Denis et Schiffermüller), Blastethia turionella (Linnaeus), Eucosma aemulana (Schläger), and Sillybiphora devia Kuznetsov. Also Rhopalovalva grapholitana (Caradja) is recorded for the first time from the Province Heilongjiang. Adults and genital characteristics for species are redescribed and illustrated. All available information for their host plants and distributional ranges are given.
Occurrence of the oak wilt disease (Raffaelea sp.) was confirmed in 2004 for the first time in Korea. By using pictorial keys, morphological characteristics of Platypus koryoensis (Murayama), a vector for this disease in Korea, was compared to Platypus quercivorus (Murayama), a vector of oak wilt in Japan. Additionally, suggestions were made for the future research of the vector of oak wilt disease in the northeastern Asia.
The antennal receptors of the adult male and female of the American leafminer, Liriomyza trifolii (Diptera: Agromyzidae) was studied using the scanning electron microscopy. This antennal receptors were developed to accept the chemical or mechanical signal in the environment. The antennae of L. trifolii is 317.52 ㎛ long and composed of the scape, pedicel, funicle, arista. Antennae located between compounds eye on the middle in the head. The result of SEM observation, four types of receptors were characterized and grouped into morphological classes: Trichoid, Basiconic, Coeloconic, Chetiform sensilla. Trichoid sensilla are located on the all segment. As a rule, female is more than male. This sensilla are long and slender hair with straight or slightly curved, and taper to a sharp point apically. Basiconic sensilla are observed only on the funicle. The number of basiconic sensilla in male and female are almost same in both sexes. This sensilla are long and thick hair with stright or slightly curved, and taper to a blunt point apically. Coeloconic sensilla are observed only on the funicle. This sensilla were showed a finger-like projections the peg apex. The number of basiconic sensilla in male and female are almost same in both sexes. Chetiform sensilla are located on the all segment. This sensilla are needle-like, tapering sharply. Pedicel are more than scape. The number of Chetiform sensilla in male and female are almost same in both sexes.
Twenty-six species of the subfamily Herminiinae were recognized from the lepidopteran surveys in Mt. Changbai (China) during 1999-2004. Among them, six species are reported for the first time from China: Paracolax fascialis (Leech), P. fentoni (Butler), Polypogon gryphalis Herrich-Schäffer, Sinarella japonica (Butler), S. punctalis (Herz), and S. cristulalis (Staudinger), and seven species are new to Mt. Changbai: Hadennia incongruens (Butler), Paracolax tristalis (Fabricius), Paracolax trilinealis (Bremer), Idia quadra (Graeser), Hydrillodes morosa (Butler), Herminia grisealis [Denis & Schiffermüller], and Sinarella nigrisigna (Leech). For the six newly reported species from China, taxonomical notes, color images of adults, and figures of the male or the female genitalia are provided.
Imago"s flight activities of Protaetia brevitarsis were from mid June to early September, and those of Allomyrina dichotoma were from mid June to late August. These activities were mainly influenced by amount and duration of rain. They were more active when there was small amount and short period of rain in a year. Distribution depth of the 3<SUP>rd</SUP> larvae of P. brevitarsis were not affected to the temperature. But A. dichotoma were sensitively react to the temperature, almost larvae were near the surface when high temperature. The distribution of P. brevitarsis was not affected by humidity, but most of A. dichotoma were near the surface when high humidity. Larvae of P. brevitarsis usually ate their dead individuals. When we supplied as food the pork, chicken, fresh mackerel, bread, apple, and pear. They took all of these food but larvae of A. dichotoma took only bread. Two species were lived in similar environment but those feeding habit was very different.
Predation of Neoseiulus fallacis was observed for biological control of Panonychus citri that is one of the major insect pests on citrus. The daily predation of development stages of P. citri by an adult female of N. fallacis were 20.1 eggs, 26.1 larvae, 18.2 protonymphs, and 7.4 deutonymphs at 25℃. The daily predation of P. citri eggs by N. fallacis was observed under different temperatures. The predation was increased as the temperature rise. At this time, ratio of eggs production of N fallacis after predation of P. citri eggs (number of eggs N. fallacis/number of eggs P. citri consumed by N. fallacis) was 0.09. The daily predation of P. citri eggs by N. fallacis was 21.1, 17.3, and 16.7 on the different arenas (diameter: 20, 40, and 60 ㎜), respectively. The predation was decreased as the arena of the leaf increase. The functional response of N. fallacis to P. citri showed Holling"s Type Ⅱ response: the consumption of prey by N. fallacis increased as the density of prey increase but increasing rate was gradually reduced. As the result, it seemed that N. fallacis can be use for biological control of P. citri.
The pine mushroom fruit body have a harvest only from natural pine forest instead of artificial culture like other edible mushrooms until now on. We investigated the interrelationship between pine mushroom colonies and insect/invertebrates fauna, and changes of their seasonal populations. Two famous pine mushroom producing district were selected on Bong-wha and Gan-sung Eup, and were surveyed on the ground and in the soil with/without pine mushroom hyphae per month from June to November, 2005. There was some difference in collected insects and invertebrates between two producing districts. Total number of collected species and individuals were 73 and 22, and 63 individuals with 19 species in Bon-wha and Gan-sung area, respectively. Otherwise, there were many mites and nematodes were living in soil with mushroom hyphae. The population densities of mites were increased to November from June, however, the population of nematodes were fluctuated with low in hot weather and high in cool.
The citrus leafminer (CLM), Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, is an oligophagous pest of Rutaceae family, especially Citrus spp. occurring in most worldwide citrus-growing areas. This study was conducted to evaluate a sex pheromone chemical of CLM, (Z,Z)-7,1l-hexadecadienal (7Z,11Z-16:AI) in monitoring CLM by trap types, the diel activity and the influence of some weather factors on trap catch. CLM was well attracted on a trap baited 7Z,11Z-16:AI 1㎎. Sticky wing trap was more effective than bucket trap. Most caught CLM were attracted at 2~6 a.m. regardless of season, and activity time of CLM was affected by sunrise time as well as sunset time. The trap catch of CLM was more influenced by wind velocity than temperature for activity time of CLM. The number of caught CLM was fallen at below 13℃, but there was little effect for trap catch at over that temperature. The average wind velocity at over 2.0 m/sec made the number of caught CLM drop down. The precipitation did not affect the number of caught CLM when the average wind velocity was lower than at 2.0 m/sec.
Sex pheromone blends of large black chafer, Holotrichia parallela (Motschulasky), which consist of a major component L-isoleucine methyl ester (LIME) and a minor component (R)-(-)-linalool, showed different attractiveness depending on the mixing ratios of the two components in potato fields in South Korea. The best ratio for H. parallela attraction was 2.5:1 of LIME and (R)-(-)-linalool. The attraction ability of pheromone traps bated with 2.5:1 ratio did not drop up to 14m, but significantly decreased at 21m from H. parallela release point. Korean population of H. parallela showed almost same periodical activity to sex pheromone with that reported in Japan, which showing a circabidian periodicity of 48h cycle.
Biological control of Tetranychus urticae by Phytoseiulus persimilis was observed in eggplant greenhouse for spring and autumn season culture. Tetranychus urticae was controlled to low density of less than 1 mite from June 24 after P. persimilis were released 3 times at rate of 10 per plant on June 1, 11, and 18, 2004 in spring season experiment. The population of Tetranychus urticae was also less than 1 mite per eggplant leaf from September 1 to October 22 after three times releases of 10 P. persimilis in autumn season experiment. In Phytoseiulus persimilis released plot, the percentage of leaves with T. urticae adults and nymphs were 8.6~13.3% and 5% or less in spring and autumn season experiment. The density of T. urticae was from 1 to 2 on leaves with T. urticae adults and nymphs.
The toxicities of 37 commercial pesticides for citrus pests were evaluated to N. fallacis. Eight fungicides (difenoconazole, imibenconazole, azoxystrobin, dithianon, fluazinam, procymidon, strep-tomycin, tribasic copper sulfate), three insecticides (dichlovos, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam) and four acaricides (milbemectin, tetradifon, dicofol, spirodiclofen) had lower effect to the hatchability of eggs N. fallacis. Six fungicides (propineb, difenoconazole, imibenconazole, azoxystrobin, dithianon, procymidon) and three acaricides (bifenazate, tetradifon, spirodiclofen) showed lower contact toxicity to adult N. fallacis. The secondary toxicity of 26 pesticides to N. fallacis adult were evaluated. Two fungicides (fluazinam, streptomycin) and 3 acaricides (machine oil, cyhexatin, halfenprox) showed low toxicity when the prey (eggs of spider mite) was treated with pesticides.
This study was carried out to clarify the biologies and morphological characteristics of Rhynchaenus sanguinipes. Also some chemicals were tested to screen the effective insecticide for the control of the species. Up to date, Zelkova serrata has been known as host plant of Rhynchaenus sanguinipes, which shows serious damage in this country. In the present study, Ulmus pumila was first found as host plant in this study. Body lengths of larvae, pupa and adult were 4.53±0.30 ㎜, 3.30±0.42 ㎜ and 2.96±0.12 ㎜, respectively. The overwintered adult of the species emerged on early April to late April, and adult of next generation emerged on early May to late May. Pupal periods were 10, 7.2, 5.1 and 4 days on 16, 20, 24 and 28℃, respectively. The lower developmental threshold temperature was 5.8℃. Four braconid parasitoids were found as natural enemies, which emerged mainly on late April to early June. Insecticidal activities with treatments of fenitrothion 50% EC, indoxacarb 30% WG, ethofenprox 20% EC and thiacloprid 10% SC was investigated against adult of R. sanguinpes, and they showed ＞90% mortality.
Five strains of Korean entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN), steinernematids and heter-orhabditids were evaluated and tried in laboratory, pot, and vegetable greenhouses for environmentally friendly control of diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, from 2002 to 2005. LC₅₀ values of five EPN strains against DBM were different depending on nematode strain and DBM instar. LC₅₀ value of Steinernema carpocapsae GSN1 (GSN1) was the lowest representing 2.6~3.9 infective juveniles (Ijs, 3rd stage) to 2nd to 4th instars of DBM. Pathogenicity of five effective strains against DBM was different depending on nematode strain, concentration, application times, and vegetable in pot. The most effective nematode was GSN1. Steinernema spp. was more effective than Heterorhabditis spp. against DBM. Two or three times of applications of EPN were effective regardless of nematode strain and concentration in pot. Efficacy of EPN was different depending on vegetable species. Efficacy was higher on Chinese cabbage, red mustard, and Ssamchoo than that on cabbage, kale, and leaf broccoli. Efficacy of GSN1, Steinernema GSNUS-10, Steinernema GSNUS-14, and Heterorhabditis GSNUH-l was variable depending on nematode strain, concentration, application times, and vegetable in greenhouse experiments. GSN1 was the most effective and 100,000 infective juveniles per ㎡ (=1 × 10⁹ Ijs/ha) resulted in higher efficacy. Three times of application of nematodes led to higher control efficacy than one or two applications. Efficacy of nematodes was higher on Chinese cabbage than cabbage or kale in greenhouse.
Total of 36 sweet potato field soils were sampled to survey the occurrence of the root-knot nematodes (RKN). The 61% of sweet potato fields in Haenam, 40% in Iksan and 31% in Yeju were infested with RKN, respectively. Average population density of RKN was 324 juveniles per 300 g soil. The resistance screening of sweet potato cultivars against RKN was carried out by using clay pots in a greenhouse. Average temperature under ground 10 ㎝ in pot was 21.5℃ during the test. There was no difference in number of egg sacs among different inoculation methods, however the egg-inoculation method was easy for treatment and had stable for results. The multiplication ratio of Melioidogyne incognita differed from 6.3 times (Jeungmi) to 63.2 times (Yulmi) by sweet potato cultivars. There were no cultivars showing resistance to M. incognita, but Jinmi, Jeungmi and Borami had resistance to M. arenaria, M. hapla and M. javanica.
As the results achieved by the evaluation of toxicities on an aphid parasitoid, Aphidius colemani by 79 pesticides registered as horticultural pesticide and 4 adjuvants for pest control, 6 insecticides including a-cypermethrin, 13 fungicides including metalaxyl-M+mancozeb and 4 acaricides including bifenazate showed low toxicity against A. colemani adult. Low toxicity was showed in all the 4 adjuvants as well. In residual toxicity test from 40 pesticides which showed toxicity more than 50%, A. colemani was safe from 11 pesticides from the 3th day after treatment, 7 pesticides from the 5th day after treatment and 14 pesticides from the 7th day after treatment, respectively. But, chlorpyrifos-methyl, diflubenzuron+chlorpyrifos, etofenprox+diazinone and imidachloprid+chlorpyrifos showed high toxicities reaching 100%, 97.7%, 100% and 100% respectively, even from the 7th day after treatment. To evaluate the control effect by A. colemani against Myzus persicae in a greenhouse, A. colemani was released at parasitoid versus aphids rates of 1:50 and 1:100 when the population of M. persicae was 50 per plant. After release, aphids population remained steady for 20 days after release at the level of around 60 aphids per plant During the investigation, insecticides for thrips control and fungicides for powdery mildew control were treated, but didn"t affect the mummy forming of A. colemani. It may be suggested from these results that the selected insecticides, fungicides, acaricides and adjuvent could be incorporated into the integrated M. persicae management system with A. colemani on greenhouse cultivation.
For the biological control of the greenhouse whitefly, aphids, American leaf-miners, Encarsia formosa, Aphidius colemani, Diglyphus isaea, and Dacnusa sibirica were used as biological control factors. Otherwise, many kinds of environment friendly agricultural materials were also used in the kindly environment friendly fanning. For testing the toxicity of environment friendly agricultural materials against to insect parasitoids as biological control factors, 61 environment friendly agricultural materials were selected by using methods and periods with insect parasitoids in the greenhouses. Environment friendly agricultural materials were sprayed to mummies and adults of E. formosa and A. colemani, and adults of Diglyphus isaea and Dacnusa sibirica in laboratory condition. Emergence rates were checked during 12 days after spray to mummies of E. formosa and A. colemani, and survival rates were at 24 and 48 hours after viral test for adult parasitoids, with 10% sugar solution. Emergence rates of E. formosa mummies were inhibited by sprayed the fungicidal environment friendly agricultural material (FEFAM) E and the environment friendly agricultural materials contained molybdenum (EFAMMo) G as 0.4 and 2.7%, respectively. E. formosa adults were not survived in vial for 48hours after sprayed and dried with the environment friendly agricultural materials contained plant extract (EFAMPE) J and the EFAMMo C. The environment friendly agricultural materials contained microelements (EFAMMEs) B and EFAMPE H, environment friendly agricultural materials contained useful soil microorganisms (EFAMSMs) H, FEFAM A and FEFAM D were recorded low survival rates of E. formosa adults with 6.7, 13.3, 13.3, 20.0 and 20.0, respectively. In case of the spraying environment friendly agricultural materials to mummies of A. colemani there were low emergence rate from mummies to adults as around 20s % with water spraying as control. A. colemani adults were not survived in vial with EFAMMo C. EFAMPE J, EFAMPE F, EFAMPE H, EFAMSM H were recorded low survival rates under 20% as 6.7, 13.3, 13.3 and 13.3, respectively. D. isaea and D. sibirica adults were not survived in vial with EFAMPE J. EFAMMo C was 53.3% of survival rates in 48 hours vial tests. D. isaea and D. sibirica were not affected by environment friendly agricultural materials compared with E. formosa and A. colemani.
Efficacies of two commercial mating distruptors (SPLAT<SUP>®</SUP> and Isomate<SUP>®</SUP>-ROSSO) were evaluated on field overwintering populations of Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), in four apple orchards. Based on the monitoring with sex pheromone traps, all the orchards (Youngchun, Kyungsan, Chungsong, and Youngju in Korea) exhibited significant overwintering populations from late April to late May. Both mating disruptors that were applied 10 days before the monitoring period significantly inhibited the male orientation to the monitoring lures, in which SPLAT type was more effective than Isomate type in the disrupting efficacy. The disruption of male orientation was highly correlated with the reduction in the early leaf damage caused mostly by G. molesta.