The measurements of Ditylenchus acutus is similar to Fortuner & Maggenti’s 1987 D. acutus (Khan, 1965) except the body length was much longer (L=0.65-0.71 mm vs. L=0.39-0.50 mm) and body width was thinner (a=40-49.2 vs. a=22-28). In addition, Ditylenchus myceliophagus was recorded for the first time in Korea. Thus, both species were described in this paper.
The effect of altitude and latitude on biodiversity (or species richness) has been a topic of great interest for many biogeographers for a long time. This study was conducted to examine the dynamics of species richness of aquatic insects along the altitudinal gradient in 24 wetlands on Mt. Halla, Jeju and test the Rapoport’s rule. The species richness of aquatic insects monotonically decreased with increasing altitude, showing a significant inverse correlation (r = -0.64). However, the pattern of species richness with altitude showed a hump-shaped relationship, with a peak in species richness at intermediate elevations when the effects of area were removed. The altitudinal range of species tended to increase with increasing altitude, as Rapoport’s rule predicts. There was a positive correlation between the altitudinal range size and the midpoint of the range size (Median) except for Hemiptera (Odonata: r = 0.75, Hemiptera: r = -0.22, Coleoptera: r = 0.72, Total: r = 0.55). Also, the extent of average altitudinal range of high-altitude species was 904.3m, and it was significantly wider than a 469.5m of low-altitude species. Consequently, the species richness of aquatic insects in wetlands on Mt. Halla along the altitudinal gradient well supported Rapoport’s rule.
Thinning treatment has a huge effect on understory and litter structures in forest ecosystem, and the resulting changes may impact some arthropod groups such as plant-feeders and detritivores. This study was carried out to find a change in arthropod abundance and their structures in relation to the thinning activity in a Pinus koraiensis plantation in Chuncheon, Korea, where thinning was conducted twice: in 1998-2000 (old-thinning) and 2007 (new-thinning). Arthropods were collected using pitfall traps in 2006 and 2008. Effects of old-thinning on change of abundance and community structure of arthropod were significant, but the effects of new-thinning were not significant. The most significant thinning effect was found in detritivores, followed by plant feeders, but the effect was hardly significant in predators. Among detritivores the changes in abundance was diverse. The abundance of orthopteran plant-feeder increased, but Curculionidae declined after thinning. There was not different in abundance of total arthropods between thinned and unthinned areas because the difference may have cancelled each other out by increased or decreased abundance of taxa. Community structures of arthropods were most greatly affected by years, followed by the old-thinning, but the new-thinning did not affect community structures.
The seasonal fluctuation of the large 28-spotted lady beetle, Henosepilachna vigintioctomaculata (Motschulsky), was observed in potato fields of Gangneung region, Gangwondo Province. The effects of their leaf consumption over a 24 hour period and developmental periods by different temperatures were investigated, and then the developmental threshold (DT) and effective cumulative temperature (ET) of each stage were calculated. Various developmental stages of H. vigintioctomaculata were captured in the fields from May to September, with three peaks in late May, late June, and late August. Leaf consumption by larval stages increased with the development of instar. The 4th instar larvae consumed potato leaves much more than other stages. Egg hatchability and emergence rate of H. vigintioctomaculata were lower at 10℃ and 30℃, but higher at around 20∼23℃. The developmental periods of each stage became shorter as temperature increased, 90 days at 10℃, 40 days at 20℃ and 25 days at 25℃. Base on developmental velocity to temperature, calculated DT and ET were 7.3℃ and 83.
The bean bug, Riptortus pedestris (=clavatus) Fabricius (Hemiptera: Alydidae) is a serious pest of soybean in many countries. It enters a reproductive diapause in the winter by short day length (＜13.5 h.) in Korea and Japan. The combined effects of temperatures (25℃ and 8℃) and day lengths (10L:14D and 14L:10D) upon the termination of the male"s diapause were studied. The combinations are ① HTLD = 25℃, 14L:10D treatment for 1, 2, 3 weeks and 30 days, ② HTSD = 25℃, 10L:14D treatment for 1, 2, and 3 weeks, ③ LTLD→HTLD = 8℃, 14L:10D treatment for 1, 2, and 3 weeks followed by HTLD treatment, ④ LTSD→HTLD = 8℃, 10L:14D treatment for 1, 2, and 3 weeks followed by HTLD. The amount of aggregation pheromone components secreted was adopted as the criteria for diapause termination in males. Males did not secrete aggregation pheromone under HTSD conditions. However, the males treated with HTLD for more than 21 days secreted significantly higher amounts of aggregation components, (E)-2-hexenyl (Z)-3-hexenoate and (E)-2-hexenyl (E)-2-hexenoate, compared to the control or HTSD treatments. The three components of the aggregation pheromone were secreted by the 14%, 29%, and 100% males treated with HTLD for 7 days, respectively. However more than 83% of the HTLD-treated males secreted all three components by the 30<SUP>th</SUP> day under the treatment. In comparison, the pheromone amounts secreted by the males treated with LTLD→HTLD or LTSD→HTLD were equal or less than those secreted by males with continuous HTLD treatment.
Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) of the pine sawyer (Monochamus saltuarius), Japanese pine sawyer (M. alternatus) and oak longicorn beetle (Moechotypa diphysis) were analyzed by GC, GC-MS and compared. Monochamus beetles are typical vectors of pine wilt disease but Moechotypa diphysis, which belongs to the same family, is not. They possess different CHCs in carbon number: 23-25 in M. saltuarius, 25-32 in M. alternatus, and 23-29 in M. diphysis. In comparison to inter-species, these three species of adult beetles have different numbers and chains of constituents of CHCs. In comparison between male and female in intra-species, the quantities of CHCs show the difference but constituents are not. Major constituent of M. saltuarius were analyzed as n-pentacosane ＞ n-nonacosane ＞ n-heptacosane, those of M. alternatus were n-nonacosene ＞ n-pentacosane ＞ n-nonacosane, and those of M. diphysis were n-heptacosane ＞ 13-methylheptacosane ＞ 3-methylheptacosane. From the body surface, most saturated carbohydrates of 3 species beetles are composed of n-alkane (40.2 - 65.7%) and followed by olefines ＞ monomethylalkanes that one or two double bonds in M. saltuarius and M. alternatus. Otherwise, M. diphysis have the difference in order of monomethylalkanes > olefins.
This paper presents the occurrence and damage characteristics of the rice leaf-folder populations in the paddy fields of Dangsu-dong, Suwon from 2004 to 2007, and also reports the insecticide response of rice leaf-folder populations, which were collected from 2005 to 2006 in Korea and Vietnam. Laboratory measurements of the head capsule width and body length data enabled the identification of the rice leaf-folder larva stages collected in the field. The rice leaf-folder population in Suwon from 2004 to 2007 has a clear pattern consisting of two different group: the low and high density years. During the low density years (2004 and 2006), only one adult peak was noted in late August, with the damaged-hill percent less than 10% in late July, and the damaged-leaf percent around 2% in September. In contrast, during the high density years (2005 and 2007), two adult peaks were noted in early August and mid-September, with the damaged-hill percent was around 30% in late July, and the damaged-leaf percent 15 to 30% in September, which was beyond the economic injury level of rice leaf-folder. High correlations existed between the occurrence of rice leaf-folder in late July and early August and damages to rice during September. Based on these results, we suggest that the information on the rice leaf-folder population monitored by the adult density or damaged-hill percent in late July and early August would be very useful for predicting the damages later in the season for aiding in decision-making for timely control. In addition, the regional populations of rice leaf-folder showed the similar responses to the insecticides tested: high susceptibility to IGRs (tebufenozide and methoxyfenozide) and organophosphates (chlorpyrifos-methyl, pyridaphenthion), but relatively low to cartap.
Toxicity of seven environment friendly agricultural materials (EFAM), which have been used in the domestic market were evaluated on honeybee (Apis mellifera) and asian multicolored ladybird beetle (Harmonia axyridis). Three EFAMs made from plant extract agents (Wangjoongwang Eco, Bogum Eco and Bestop Eco) and four EFAMs made from microbial utilizing agents (Worldstar Eco, Goodmorning, Bluechip and Cameleon) were investigated as EFAMs. In evaluation of toxicity on honeybee, the RT25 values of 3 EFAMs made from plant extract agents ranged from 1 to 3 days. Therefore, honeybee should be released 1-3 days after application of these EFAMs. Meanwhile, the four agricultural materials made from microbial utilizing agents did not show any mortality against honeybee. In evaluating the toxicity to adult and larva ladybird beetles, all seven EFAMs made from plant extract agents and microbial utilizing agents to show any mortality.
Seasonal occurrence and suitable time of control of Tetranychus kanzawai along with the control efficacy of the alternative use of natural predator and miticide was investigated in Rubus coreanus (Miquel). T. kanzawai appeared in late May with its peak between June and July, and decreased after August in R. coreanus. In Iksan, T. kanzawai estimates show peaks 2~4 times per year during the investigation periods from 2006 to 2008 in R. coreanus fields. Suitable time of control of T. kanzawai was in early to mid May. And control effects of T. kanzawai was improved with an alternated control plot, treating miticides in early-occurrence of T. kanzawai and then releasing the natural predator (Phytoseiulus persimilis Anthias-Henriot). Also, the yields of R. coreanus was highest in the alternated control plot of 638㎏/10a compared to non-treatment of 559㎏/10a.
Two groups of entomopathogenic bacteria, Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus, are known to suppress insect immune responses by inhibiting eicosanoid biosynthesis. This study used these bacterial culture broths to develop novel biochemical insecticides against the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. Though the bacterial culture broths alone showed little insecticidal activity, they significantly enhanced pathogenicity of Bacillus thuringiensis against the fourth instar larvae of P. xylostella. Sterilization of the bacterial culture broth by autoclaving or 0.2 ㎛ membrane filtering did not influence the synergistic effect on the pathogenicity of B. thuringiensis. Three metablites identified in the culture broth of X. nematophila also showed similar synergistic effects. In field test, both entomopathogenic bacterial culture broth also enhanced the control efficacy of B. thuringiensis against P. xylostella.
A bacterial colony was isolated from the gut of the bean bug, Riptortus clavatus. From morphological and biochemical tests, the bacterial isolate showed the highest similarity to Staphylococcus succinus. DNA sequence of 16S rRNA gene of the bacterium supported the identification. Oral administration of penicillin G to adults of R. clavatus gave a dose-dependent mortality of adults of R. clavatus to adults along with significant decrease of the bacterial population in the gut. Similarly, three metabolites (benzylideneacetone, proline-tyrosine, and acetylated phenylalanine-glycine-valine) derived from an entomopathogenic bacterium, Xenorhabdus nematophila, also inhibited growth of the gut bacterial population and gave significant mortalities to R. clavatus. These results suggest that a gut bacterial population classified as Staphylococcus sp. is required for survival of R. clavatus and that the three bacterial metabolites had toxic effects on the bugs due to their antibacterial properties.
Occurrences of Rhopalosipnum rufiabdominalis damage in the leaves of Japanese apricots were observed in Hadong, Gyeongnam Province, a major producing area. R. rufiabdominalis occurred from early May to mid October, with the peak occurrence of damaged leaves in mid May. To find proper timing of chemical control against R. rufiabdominalis, acetamiprid WP was sprayed weekly from 3 April, before budbreak, to 8 May in 2007. The best time for control R. rufiabdominalis was on 17 April 2007, at which the leaves were still tender and developing up to 3 to 5 leaves.