Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a bacterial biopesticide against insect pests, mainly lepidopterans. Spodoptera exigua and Plutella xylostella exhibit significant decreases in Bt susceptibility in late larval instars. To enhance Bt pathogenicity, we used a mixture treatment of Bt and other bacterial metabolites which possessed significant immunosuppressive activities. Mixtures of Bt with culture broths of Xenorhabdus nematophila (Xn) or Photorhabdus temperata ssp. temperata (Ptt) significantly enhanced the Bt pathogenicity against late larval instars. Different ratios of Bt to bacterial culture broth had significant pathogenicities against last instar P. xylostella and S. exigua. Five compounds identified from the bacterial culture broth also enhanced Bt pathogenicity. After determining the optimal ratios, the mixture was applied to cabbage infested by late ins tar P. xylostella or S. exigua in greenhouse conditions. A mixture of Bt and Xn culture broth killed 100% of both insect pests when it was sprayed twice, while Bt alone killed less than 80% or 60% of P. xylostella and S. exigua, respectively. Other Bt mixtures, including Ptt culture broth or bacterial metabolites, also significantly increased pathogenicity in the semi-field assays. These results demonstrated that the Bt mixtures collectively names 'Bt-Plus' can be developed into potent biopesticides to increase the efficacy of Bt.
,  , The family Brachyceridae is reported for the first time in Korea and is represented by Desmodophorus hebes(Fabricius, 1781). A revised description, morphological photographs of adults, illustrations of genitalia, a key to the families of Korean Curculionoidea, and a key to the East Asian species of Desmidophorus are provided.
Aliphatic cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) of different developmental stages of the spot clothing wax cicada, Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae) were analyzed using GC and GC-MS. The numbers of carbons in the major CHCs of each developmental stage 32, 33, 28, 38, 37 in the egg, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th ins tar nymphal stages, and adults, respectively. The cuticle of Lycorma delicatula contains mainly methyl-branched 9-methylheptacosane (15.11%) in the egg stage, and a high proportion of n-heptacosane in nymphal stages (15.75, 22.42, 25.04, and 23.11 % in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th instars, respectively). In contrast, male and female adults had high proportions of n-nonacosane (13.42 and 16.55%). The chemical constituents of CHCs were classified into five groups (n-alkanes, monomethylalkanes, dimethylalkanes, trimethylalkanes, olefins) and group profiles of each developmental stage were compared. Egg surface was composed mainly monomethylalkanes (45.39%), a saturated hydrocar-bon. Nymph CHCs consisted primarily of n-alkanes (37.63 to 46.12%). There was a difference between adult male and female CHCs_ However, both contained n-alkanes and monomethylalkanes. CHCs with trimethyl or double bonded structure were rare in all stages.
We present a list of Korean fungivorous Tenebrionidae associated with higher fungi (Basidiomycetes). Most fungivorous tenebrionids are associated with the order Aphyllophorales. A total of31 Tenebrionid species (both adults and larvae) belonging to four tribes (Bolitophagini, Toxicini, Scaphidernini, and Diaperini) are presented in our checklist. Of these, 62 percent are obligate mycetobionts, In addition, 42 fungal hosts of fungivorous tenebrionids are presented. Both thetenebrionids and the fungal hosts reported here are found throughout Korea.
This study was conducted to evaluate Geometridae (Lepidoptera) species as pests and the damage they cause in citrus orchards in Jej u, Korea. Seven geometridae species occurred in citrus orchards: Ascotis selenaria, Ectropis excellens, Menophra senilis, Biston panterinaria, Ourapteryx nivea, Odontopera arida and Hypomecis punctinalis. Among them, A. selenaria was most abundant, followed by E. excellens and M senilis. Most Geometridae larvae fed on citrus leaves, but A. selenaria larvae ate fruits and leaves. Fruit damage of Citrus unshiu appeared as gnawed scars caused by young larvae feeding on fruit surface. Fruit damage on Shiranui fruits appeared as a wide hole or deep scars caused by feeding by mature larvae (6th instar). Citrus leaves damage due to Geometridae larvae was high during May to June. Fruit damage started in late June as the spring-shoots of citrus hardened and increased sharply in late July. In the field experiment, fruit damage in the late season reached 4.2% in both 2008 and 2009 and reached 5.2% in 2010. In citrus orchards, A. selenaria larvae started to appear in mid-May and their populations peaked in mid June, late July, and early to mid-September. Adult males of A. selenaria had a maximum peak in mid-May, and two other peaks in early to late July and late August to early September. A. selenaria male adults were collected in a pheromone traps constantly throughout Jeju Island.
Changes in insect communities are one of the best indicators of environmental changes. A survey was conducted using the Flight Interception Trap (FIT) method to check the changes of species composition and abundance of silphids at Mt. Sokrisan National Park from April to October in 2003 to 2007. A total of9,704 individuals of six silphid species were examined by FIT. Among them, Nicrophorus quadripunctatus was the most dominant species with 8,763 (90.3%) individuals. There were only 971 (9.7%) individuals of the other five species. The seasonal abundance of silphids peaked in July and August. The annual abundance has decreased gradually since 2004. Therefore, the changing patterns of species composition and abundance of silphids checked by long-term monitoring could be used as environmental indicators which indirectly show the environmental changes of Mt. Sokrisan National Park.
,  , This study aimed to estimate control thresholds for managing common cutworm, Spodoptera litura Faricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) at different larval densities and growth stages of Chinese cabbage in field conditions. The percent yield reduction (Y) of Chinese cabbage infested by different densities of S. litura (X, no. oflarvae/100 plants) for three weeks were estimated by Y= - 21.85X + 1300 (R2=0.997) 5 days after transplanting and Y= - 12.1X + 1382 (R2=0.998) 20 days after transplanting. Based on the relationships between the densities of S. litura larvae and the yield index of chinese cabbage, the number of larvae (2nd to 3rd instar) which caused 5% loss of yield was estimated as 2.9/100 plants 5 days after transplanting, and 5.6/100 plants 20 days after transplanting.
,  , Synanthedon velox (Fixsen) is redescribed and the genus Bembecia is reported for the first time from Korea with B. pavicevia Tosevski, Description, images of the adult, genitalia, and the Korean common names of two species are provided. Their host plants are listed and their biology is briefly summarized.
Crysochroa fulgidissima (Bidan-beole, Spanish fly) is traditionally used as a crude drug and insecticide in the East Asia and Korea, respectively. This study investigated the effect of ethanol extract of C. fulgidissima on the NO production activity. The C fulgidissima extract was a potent inducer of NO production in CP AE cells and a stimulator of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in a dose-dependent manner. This study also evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of this extract by determining the level ofICAM-l, VCAM-l, and prostaglandin E2 from HUVEC cells. Although C. fulgidissima extract was a potent inducer of NO production in the CP AE cells, it showed weak inhibitory effects on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production in HUVEC cells. HPLC and GC-MS analysis of the ethanol extract of C. fulgidissima revealed the presence of cantharidin.
,  , Temperature-related parameters of Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Acarina: Tetranychidae) development were estimated and a stage-structured matrix model was developed. The lower threshold temperatures were estimated as 8.4℃ for eggs, 9.9℃ for larvae, 9.2℃ for protonymphs, and 10.9℃ for deutonymphs. Thermal constants were 113.6, 29.1, 29.8, and 33.4 degree days for eggs, larvae, protonymphs, and deutonymphs, respectively. Non-linear development models were established for each stage of P. citri. In addition, temperature-dependent total fecundity, age-specific oviposition rate, and age-specific survival rate models were developed for the construction of an oviposition model. P. citri age was categorized into five stages to construct a matrix model: eggs, larvae, protonymphs, deutonymphs and adults. For the elements in the projection matrix, transition probabilities from an age class to the next age class or the probabilities of remaining in an age class were obtained from development rate function of each stage (age classes). Also, the fecundity coefficients of adult population were expressed as the products of adult longevity completion rate (liiongevity) by temperature-dependent total fecundity. To evaluate the predictability of the matrix model, model outputs were compared with actual field data in a cool early season and hot mid to late season in 2004. The model outputs closely matched the actual field patterns within 30 d after the model was run in both the early and mid to late seasons. Therefore, the developed matrix model can be used to estimate the population density of P. citri for a period of 30 d in citrus orchards.
,  , Wood products are sometimes infested with cossonid weevils. A cossonid weevil, Hexarthrum brevicome Wollaston has been found on wood boards used for printing books in the Jeonju Confucian temple and school (2004), a wood cabinet in the Museum of Milyang (2007), a wood wardrobe in the Museum of Seoul (2008) and on wood boards used for printing Buddhist scriptures in the temple of Suncheon (2008). Wood utensils for living in the Museum of Seoul were found to be infested with another cossonid weevil, Rhyncolus sculpturatus (Walt!) in 2008. To protect the cultural property from insect pests in the field of conservation science, more comprehensive insect pest management (IPM) programs are required.
,  , The walnut leaf beetle, Gastrolina depressa, belongs to family Chrysomelidae (Coleoptera), and is one of the major pests of walnut trees. G. depressa eggs were oval and dark orange. The three G. depressa larval ins tars were gray in color. The larval period was approx. 8.14 days (24 ", C, 16L:8D). Adults of both sexes were dark blue, and females were larger than males. Overwintered adults emerged in late April, and laid eggs in clusters on young leaves of the host tree. Mature 3rd instar larvae pupated after a short prepupal period. Adults emerged starting mid-May and entered into diapause shortly afterward.