This study was conducted to investigate the influence of natural degrading polymer film covering in rice paddies on the benthic macroinvertebrate community structure in Dangsu-dong, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do from May 2009 to September 2009. We compared 5 treatments: golden apple snail farming (GF), natural degrading polymer film + organic farming (NOF), natural degrading polymer film + chemical farming (NCF), conventional farming (CF)，and no fertilization (NF) as the control. The total number of species was highest in NOF followed by GF, NF, NCF, and CF. The total number of individuals was highest in NOF followed by NCF, CF, NF, and GF. The Dominance index (DI) ranged from 0.43 to 0.95. The highest dominance index was in GF followed by NCF, NF-CF, and NOF. The species diversity index (H") for each experimental plot ranged from 0.49 to 2.93. The average species diversity index was highest in NOF followed by NF, GF, CF，and NCF. After the natural degrading polymer film covered the paddies, the benthic macroinvertebrates tended to recover, but leeches and aquatic beetles increased, Mollusca and Annelida, which are sensitive taxa, decreased in both species and individual numbers after the soil was covered with the natural degrading polymer film. The number of species tended to recover. However, the number of individuals continued to decrease.d, especially individuals. Since then, the number of species tended to recover. However, the number of individuals decreased.
Understanding the metapopulation structure and movement of a species are required for conserving the species. In this paper, migration patterns and connectivity of patches of a threatened butterfly, Pamassius bremeri Bremer, were postulated using the mark-release-recapture (MRR) technique in a habitat located in the mid-southern region of the Korean peninsula. A total of 194 individuals were captured (137 males and 57 females) and, of them, 93 individuals (73 males and 20 females) were recaptured during the MRR experiment. The migration analysis showed 23-150% immigration and 28-53% emigration. There were high correlations between the migrating individuals and the distance between patches, but there was no correlation between migrating individuals and patch size or between migrating individuals and the number of host plants. Consequently, the migration of butterflies occurred frequently between closer patches, while patch size and quantity of the food plant had minor effects on migration behavior. Additionally, males migrated more frequently than females. Analysis of the migration patterns of P. bremeri showed that the central patch played an important role on linking patch groups and more frequent migrations were monitored between nearby patches than between the remote patches. This study suggested that active migrations take place between the neighboring multiple patches and these are accelerated if there is a stepping-stone patch between them.
Benzylideneacetone (BZA) is a compound derived from culture broth of an entomopathogenic bacterium, Xenorhabdus nematophila (Xn). Its immunosuppressive activity is caused by its inhibitory activity against eicosanoid biosynthesis. This BZA is being developed as an additive to enhancc control efficacy of other commercial microbial insecticides. This study was focused on the enhancement of the immunosuppressive activity of BZA by generating its chemical derivatives toward decrease of its hydrophobicity. Two hydroxylated BZA and one sugar-conjugated BZA were chemically synthesized. All derivatives had the inhibitory activities of BZA against phospholipase A<SUB>2</SUB> (PLA<SUB>2</SUB>) and phenoloxidase (PO) of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, but BZA was the most potent. Mixtures of any BZA derivative with Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) significantly increased pathogenicity of Bt. BZA also inhibited colony growth of four plant pathogenic fungi. However, BZA derivatives (especially the sugar-conjugated BZA) lost the antifungal activity. These results indicated that BZA and its derivatives inhibited catalytic activities of two immune-associated enzymes (PLA2 and PO) of P. xylostella and enhanced Bt pathogenicity. We suggest its use to control plant pathogenic fungi.
Although Guleopdo is small island of only 1.71 ㎢, the endangered butterfly species, Argynnis nerippe, is abundant there. This study was carried out to estimate the abundance of A. nerippe in Guleopdo, using quadrate, mark-recapture, and line-transect methods. Although the study was insufficient, the population size was estimated at 4,467 to 6,700 larvae and approx. 1,000 adults. A. nerippe was the most abundant among butterfly species in Guleopdo, and it comprised 32% of the total butterflies. A total of 28 butterfly species were observed in this study, and 3 species of these species were migrating species. When the abundance of A. nerippe throughout the country during the period from 1938 to 2010 was studied, we found that it decreased abruptly in the 2000s. Presently, A. nerippe inhabits a few locations in the mid-northern region and western islands. The relatively high numbers of A. nerippe in Guleopdo was due to conservation of natural grasslands and grazing of livestock, which provides adequate habitat for this species.
A taxonomic review of the fungivorous tetratomid beetles in Korea, which comprises four species belonging to two genera of two subfamilies, is presented. Three species, Holostrophus (Paraholostrophus) orientalis Lewis, 1895 and two newly recorded species, Pisenus insignis (Reitter, 1889) and Holostrophus diversefasciatus Pic, 1921, are identified and described herein. A photograph of adults, diagnoses, illustrations of diagnostic characteristics, and ecological information regarding habitat, and host fungi are provided.
This study investigated the adverse effects of sound treatment on physiological processes of the American leafminer, Liriomyza trifolii, during several developmental stages. Larval feeding activity was analyzed by measuring feeding tunnel length. It was significantly suppressed by sound treatment (5,000 Hz, 95 dB). Sound treatment delayed the pupal period at 315 - 5,000 Hz and prevented adult emergence at 1,000 - 5,000 Hz. Female oviposition was also inhibited by the stress sound treatments. However, phototactic adult movement was not affected by sound treatment. Pupae treated with 5,000 Hz showed marked changes in protein pattems analyzed by two dimensional electrophoresis. MALDI-TOF analysis of specific protein spots indicated that trafficking protein particle complex I, triosephosphate isomerase, hypothetical protein TcasGA2_TC013388, polycystin-2, paraneoplastic neuronal antigen MAl, and tropomyosin I (isoform M) were predicted in the control insects and disappeared in the insects treated with sound. By contrast, DOCK9, cytoskeletal keratin II, and F0F1-ATP synthase beta subunit were predicted only in the sound-treated insects. Furthermore, stress sound significantly increased the susceptibility of L. trifolii to insecticides. These results suggest that physiological processes of L. trifolii are altered by sound stress, which may be exploited to develop a novel physical control tactic against L. trifolii.
Five erigonine spider species are described with illustrations: a new species, Saitonia pilosus n. sp., and four records new to the Korean spider fauna, Ceratinella brevis (Wider, 1834), Erigone atra Blackwall, 1833, Maso sundevalli (Westring, 1851), and Parasisis amurensis Eskov, 1984. The occurrences of four spider genera, Ceratinella Emerton, 1882, Maso Simon, 1884, Parasisis Eskov, 1984, and Saitonia Eskov, 1992, are also new to Korea.
Economic injury levels (EILs) and economic control threshold (ET) were estimated for the Tea red spider mite, Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida(Acari, Tetranychidae) in Rubus coreanus Miquel. T. kanzawai density increased until the early-July and thereafter decreased in all plots except the non-innoculation plot where initial density of the mite were different each 0，5, 10, 20 and 40 adults per plant branch on May 7 in 2008. And the occurrence of the densities were increased higher innoculated density than different innoculation density. The yield was decreased with increasing initial mite density and thereby the rates of yield loss was increased with increasing initial mite density. And T. kanzawai occurrence density, yields and the rates of yield loss, where initial density of the mite were different each 0,2, 5, 10 and 20 adults per plant branch on May 8 in 2009 were similar tendency to 2008 year results. The relationship between initial T. kanzawai densities and the yield losses was well described by a linear regression, Y = 0.6545X + 3.0425 (R<SUP>2</SUP> = 0.93) in 2008, Y = 0.9031X + 2.0899(R<SUP>2</SUP> = 0.96) in 2009. Based on the relationship, the number of adults per plant branch(EILs) which can cause 5% loss of yield was estimated to be approximately 3.0 in 2008 and 3.2 in 2009. And the ET was estimated to be approximately 2.4 in 2008 and 2.6 in 2009. The relationship between initial T. kanzawai densities and occurrence density of mid-May considering the best spray timing against T. kanzawai was well described by a linear regression, Y = 0.471X + 2.495(R<SUP>2</SUP> = 0.95) in 2008, Y = 0.9938X + 3.1858(R<SUP>2</SUP> 二 0.96) in 2009. Based on the relationship, the number of adults per Ieaf(ET) in mid-May which can cause 5% loss of yield was estimated to be approximately 3.6 in 2008 and 5.8 in 2009.
Enterobacteria were isolated in the gut of the predacious multicolored Asian ladybird beetle, Harmonia axyridis, and their effects to the development of H axyridis were examined. Populations of H axyridis in this experiment were collected from Kimjae at Cheonbuk province (JK population), Geumsan at Chungnam province (CK population) and laboratory population at Laboratory of Insect Physiology in Chungnam National University, Daejeon. Thirty-four enterobacteria isolates were purified and isolated from the digestive tract of H. axyridis, and a total of 4 strains were classified into group by analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. About 70% of total isolates were phylogenetic groups of Bacillus genus and Staphylococcus genus, and they were commonly separated from the digestive tract of H. axyridis. After investigating their susceptibility against antibiotics with 18 representative enterobacteria isolates, ofloxacin and penicillin were selected for examination in this study of their ability to inhibit the growth of all of isolates. In order to remove the enterobacteria from the aphids, ofloxacin and penicillin were given to the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, and the turnip aphid, Lipaphis erysimi. These aphids were provided to H. axyridis as prey. The weight of pupa, developmental periods of each larval instar, the number of eggs and their hatching ratio of H. axyridis with treatment aphids were lower compared with non-treatment aphids. Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a representative enterobacteria and commonly isolated from the digestive tract of H. axyridis. In the absence of S. saprophyticus, the developmental periods of each larval instar increased, however, the weights of pupa, the number of eggs, and their hatching ratio decreased.
Pseudoips fagana Fabricius belongs to the subfamily Chloephorinae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Eggs of Pseudoips fagana were white and oviposited on oak leaves. There were five P. fagana larval instars, which were light green in color with four white crosslines. The larval period was approx. 24.4 days (25°C, 16L:8D). Pupae were covered with a light-green membrane and silk. The wingspan of adults was approx. 15 to 18 mm. The color of the forewings of both sexes was bright green. The color of the hindwings was yellow in males and and white in females. First emergence was from early May to late June, and the second emergence was from early July to late August. Pseudoips fagana over-wintered as pupae.