A taxonomic review of the genus Atractomorpha Saussure in Korea is presented. Two species are identified, Atractomorpha lata (Motschulsky, 1866) and a new record A. sinensis Bolívar, 1905 which is reported from the far southern islands in Korea, Gageo-do and Jeju-do. A key, descriptions, habitus photographs of adults, and distributional information are provided.
A newly recorded species of Philostephanus Distant, 1909 from Korea, P. ulmi (Kerzhner, 1979), is reported with brief taxonomic notes on the Korean Philostephanus species. Morphological keys of the Korean Philostephanus species are provided with the photos of adults and female genitalia for each species.
Monitoring was conducted to investigate the occurrence of Grapholita dimorpha Komai in Korean apple orchards using sex pheromone traps. G. dimorpa showed four peaks per year: early May, from late June to early July, from late July to mid August, and from late August to September. After adult emergence of the over-wintered G. dimorpha, G. dimorpha catches was decreased significantly and increased again after July. In G. molesta traps, G. molesta and G. dimorpha were trapped by 98.8 and 1.2%, respectively. Conversely in G. dimorpha traps, G. dimorpha and G. molesta were trapped by 99.7 and 0.3%, respectively. The 30.6% of the moths from the damaged apple fruits were G. dimorpha. This is the first report on G. dimorpha in apple orchards in Korea.
Characteristics of habitat alteration and post-embryonic development of Paratlanticus ussuriensis were investigated in the mountain region of Bitanri, Yeongdong county, Chungcheongbuk-do from 2007 to 2009. Overwintered eggs under the ground in the hillside were hatched from late March to early April. The soil temperature during this season was 7~14℃. Young nymphs lived mainly at the hillside by eating oak tree leaves but the 3rd or 4th instars switched their habitat to orchards near the hillside in early May, which is the time for sprouting of peach leaves. Old nymphs developed into the adult stage at the orchards in late May and moved back to the hillside in late June. Duration of post-embryonic development from the first instar nymph to adult was 49.2 days after 7 moltings at 25℃. Female adults collected from the field had long ovipositor (26.2 ㎜) and were slightly longer in the body length, hind femur, tegmen and pronotum than those of males.
Occurrence of Japanese gall-forming thrips, Ponticulothrips diospyrosi was surveyed from 143 orchards at 11 cities or counties in 6 provinces, Korea from 2008 to 2009. Occurrence of P. diospyrosi was not observed from Jeju (4 persimmon orchards) in Jeju-do and Wanju (12 persimmon orchards) in Jeollabuk-do. However, P. diospyrosi occurred newly in the orchards in Sanchung, Gyeongsangnam-do and in Gangreung, Gangwon-do. Rate of damaged orchards by P. diospyrosi in Gumi, Mungyeong, Sangju and Euseong in Gyeongsangbuk-do (73.3%) was higher than that of in Gyeongsangnam-do or Youngdong areas in Chungcheongbuk-do. A maximum rate of damaged trees by P. diospyrosi was 23.5% in Gumi, while the damage was lower in Sancheong and Jinju representing 0.2 and 1.6%, respectively. Rate of damaged leaves by P. diospyrosi was the highest in Sangju (0.12%). P. diospyrosi occurred between N35°07′50″ and 35°51′24″ and between E127°38′36″ to 128°53′02″. Persimmon orchards close to mountain were more damaged by P. diospyrosi. Edge parts of persimmon orchards were more damaged by P. diospyrosi than inner parts, especially in orchards close to mountain. Also, the middle and lower parts of tree canopy were more damaged by P. diospyrosi than the upper parts of canopy.
Species richness (number of species) of the butterfly community in the Gwangneung forest, Korea, was estimated using data of the long-term butterfly monitoring, which had been carried out 291 times in the Korea National Arboretum or forest area of Gwangneung from 1998 to 2008. Abundance of each butterfly species was monitored using the line-transact method. In the present study, 13,333 butterflies belonging to 112 species were observed. Species accumulation curve and species richness was obtained using a software, EstimateS. The species accumulation curve shows an increase tendency even at 291 survey times, implying the possibility of the presence of a few unfound species. However, values of species richness estimated by the seven estimators were stabilized around 240-250 survey times. Species richness estimated by the estimators ranged from 120 species to 141 species with 128 species in average. However, the figure estimated by the previous studies since 1958 was 148 species. We estimated the reasonable scale of species richness on the base of recent analysis on the change of butterfly species. Species richness of the Korea National Arboretum was higher than that of natural forest and of plantation. However, species richness of butterfly was not different between natural forest and plantation. It is likely that increase of grasslands and habitat diversity in arboretum led to the increase of species richness of butterfly community.
Locust gall midge (LGM), Obolodiplosis robiniae (Haldeman) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is a cecidomyiid insect forming roll-up galls on leaves of Robinia pseudoacacia Linnaeus (Fabaceae). LGM, known as native to North America, was reported from Korea and Japan in 2002. LGM was observed weekly or biweekly to clarify their voltinism and distribution within the crown of the host tree in two sites of Osan and Siheung in Korea from May to August, 2007. Density of LGM was investigated based on the number of larvae per leaf. Two generations of LGM were observed in Siheung site whereas three generations in Osan site during the present study. The result indicated that LGM had at maximum three generations per year. The density of LGM in Osan was higher in the upper crown of the host trees than middle or lower part. In Siheung, LGMs were distributed more on the exterior of the lower crown than the interior. The average number of larvae per gall was 3.3±0.1 and 2.8±0.1 individuals per leaf in Osan and Siheung, respectively.
This study was conducted to investigate insect fauna in the four insect garden sites of Suwon, Yeongyang, Buyeo and Yecheon from 2005 to 2007. Seasonal population size of insects was largest from June to August in all the four sites. In the four sites, Coleopteran insects were dominant followed by Hemiptera and Orthoptera. Unique education/learning programs are successfully run at the insect gardens based on the three geographic types (i.e. urban, mountainous and rural). These activities will help preserve insect biodiversity in the area and visitors better understand life forms such as insects found in the areas.
There was different between two differential geographical and environmental condition areas on elytra color expression patterns of the multicolored Asian lady beetles (Harmonia axyridis). Especially, it was investigated that expression rates of melanic patterns (conspicua, spectabilis and axyridis) relatively increased in overwintering populations collected in highly mean temperature and longer cumulative daylength area. In addition, in the same collection site, the seasonal difference had influenced on color patterns of H. axyridis. Although these effects didn"t were not observed in the laboratory, environmental conditions such as temperature or cumulative daylength might be factors that gave an effect on color pattern formation.
Host preference was tested on the 7 species plants against ggot-mae-mi, Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae). This insect highly preferred Ailanthus altissima and Vitis vinifera however, didn"t choose the other plants preferentially. Both nymphs and adults lived longest in A. altissima and V. vinifera but lived in short and low ecdysis rate against other plants and 3 species fruits. By analyzing the phloem-feeding behavior using EPG, L. delicatula was showed the short time in non-probing phase and it also exhibit the longest feeding time in A. altissima and V. vinifera, but other plants did not feed the phloem at all. In sugar contents analysis, A. altissima existed high sucrose proportion and followed by fructose＞glucose, V. vinifera was analyzed by an order of glucose＞ fructose＞maltose＞sucrose＞rhamnose, Malus pumila was as glucose＞ fructose, Pyrus calleryana was as glucose＞unkown＞fructose, Hibiscus syriacus was as sucrose＞glucose. Nymphs and adults of L. delicatula lived longest in 5% sucrose solution, and next is in 5% fructose solution. However, they lived short in other sugar solutions. L. delicatula nymph and adult according to the combination of sugar proportion found in original plants lived longer in sugar combination solution of A. altissima and those of V. vinifera was next. Analyzed original sugar proportion from M. pumila, P. calleryana, H. syriacus respectively, L. delicatula lived short period comparing to the A. altissima, V. vinifera. This result was judged that sugar contents affected on choosing the host plants.
A leafhopper, Zorka sp. was collected from a persimmon (Diospyrosi kaki, cv SangjuDungsi) orchard in Sangju, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Korea on 15 June, 2008. This leafhopper gave a serious damage to persimmon leaves, being a new pest to persimmon. This leafhopper was tentatively identified as Zorka sp., which has not been recorded in the science. White spots of ＜1㎜-circle occurred around the vein of damaged leaves. Most part of leaf was turned to white when heavy infection occurred. The first symptom occurred from 4 days after introduction of Zorka sp. (4 adults/persimmon leaf). We investigated the occurrence of Zorka sp. in the persimmon orchards in Korea from 2008 to 2009. Total 143 orchards from 11 cities in 6 provinces were observed from July to August. The damage caused by Zorka sp. was found in 22 orchards (15.4%) of the investigated. According to locality, 40.7% of orchards were damaged in Yeongdong, Chungcheongbuk-do and 33.3% in Wanju, Jeollabuk-do. However, no damage was observed from the orchards in Gyeongsangnam-do and Jeju-do, south part of Korea. Especially, 9 of 11 orchards in Youngdong were located close to grapevine yards.
This study was conducted to investigate the fruit damage according to the number of released stink bugs and date of adult introduced on non-astringent persimmon. The fruit damage differed significantly by the number, date, and the source of feed for Riptortus clavatus. Damages on the fruits appeared when five bugs were released to mother branches bearing fruits. Damages to the fruits was heavy in the case that bugs were introduced in September and October, compared with in June, July and August. Persimmon fruit damage was influenced significantly by the available sources to R. clavatus, persimmon fruit alone or additional supply of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and water. Characteristic damage symptoms by R. clavatus showed only scars on the fruit skin, without fruit dropping. Halyomorpha halys (=mista) showed significantly higher fruit damage when they were released in July, August, and September compared with other periods. Number of H. halys to the fruit also showed significant differences in fruit damages. Five H. halys in July showed 100% damaged fruits. The fruit damage by Plautia stali was not significantly different according to dates of introduction but the number of insects gave significant differences in the fruit damage ratio at the level of 1, 3, 5 bugs introduced to the mother branche bearing friuts. The damage symptoms by P. stali was fruit dropping in July and August but from September damaged fruits were found in the branches.
To investigate resistance of Myzus persicae, which is resistant to etofenprox belonging to pyrethriods, to other insecticides, fenpropathrin and thiamethoxam, mortality and LC₅₀ values for these two insecticides against the etofenprox-resistant and -susceptible populations were obtained and EPG analysis for feeding behaviors of thiamethoxam or fenpropathrin treated and non-treated M. persicae was conducted. For fenpropathrin, mortality after 48 h treatment was 28 and 29%, respectively for the resistant and susceptible population. The LC₅₀ value was 193.15 and 93.46 ppm, respectively. For thiamethoxam, mortality after 48 h treatment was 87 and 57%, respectively for the resistant and susceptible population. The LC₅₀ value was 3.17 and 30.34 ppm, respectively. There was no significant difference in feeding behavior between fenprorpathrin treated and non-treated M. persicae. They showed a continuous feeding pattern. However, contact signal frequency increased in the thiamethoxam treated M. persicae 1 hour after treatment and significant difference was shown.
Biological-control-based-integrated-pest-management of major pests occurring on sweet pepper in greenhouse during summer season was tried. As many as 2.1 Orius laevigatus per ㎡ were released in two times on June 6 and 19, and the population of thrips was kept under control and accordingly the damage was negligible throughout the season. To control aphids, a total of 0.8 Aphidius colemani per ㎡ were released in four times, 0.2 of them at a time, flonicamid on May 14 and July 18 and pymetrozine on June 14 and September 4 were sprayed on the spots of high aphid occurrence to reduce the release of the wasp, and the density of aphids was kept under control. Whitefly was controlled successfully by releasing a total of 343.4 Amblyseius swirski per ㎡ in nine times, 38.1 of them at a time, from May 9 until November 12 and dinotefuran was sprayed on November 12 when the density of whitefly increased up to 200 per trap. Tetranichus kanzawai was controlled by both Phytoseiulus persimilis which was released a total of 44.4 per ㎡ in five times 8.9 of them at a time from May 23 to September 10, and the A. swirski which was released for the control of whitefly.
Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai CAB109 isolated in Korea is known active against Spodoptera sp.. Especially, B. thuringiensis aizawai CAB109 isolates showed 100% mortality against Spodoptera litura and Spodoptera exigua. To screen highly active B. thuringiensis, the pathogenicity of B. thuringiensis CAB109 was compared with that of commercialized B. thuringiensis products. LC₅₀ values of CAB109, product TB-WP and product SC strains of B. thuringiensis were 1.3x10⁵, 2.3x10⁶ and 5.2x10⁵ cfu/㎖ against the 2nd larva of S. litura and 1.8×10⁴, 1.3×10⁶ and 1.5×10⁶ cfu/㎖ against the 2nd larva S. exigua, respectively. To determine new gene"s existence and absence, the plasmid DNA was extracted, and compared to that of B.t. aizawai HD-133. Both B. thuringiensis were not like plasmid DNA pattern. PCR technique was used to predict both plasmid DNA"s cry gene. PCR products analysis showed that B.t. CAB109 harbor Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, Cry1C and Cry1D and B.t. HD-133 has Cry1Aa and Cry1Ab, respectively.
Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki KB100 isolated from the domestic soil have the most effective activity against the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua larva. The tannic acid as protease inhibitor might be increased the efficacy of sublethal concentrations of B. thuringiensis. The tannic acid was identified as a protease inhibitor that could increased the efficacy of sublethal concentrations of B. thuringiensis. Mixture of B. thuringiensis and tannic acid was investigated the mortality of S. exigua larva in the laboratory and field. When B. thuringiensis treated to 2nd larva of S. exigua, mortality was shown 54.4%. However, mixtures of B. thuringiensis with 4 and 40 mM tannic acid were increased mortalities to 2nd larva of S. exigua as 64.0 and 95.5%, respectively. Also, synergy effect of mixture of B. thuringiensis and 40 mM tannic acid was increased the mortality of S. exigua 3rd larva to 93.3%, even though 60.0% mortality with only B. thuringiensis treatment. On the other hand, the mortality of mixture with B. thuringiensis and 80 mM tannic acid was 53.3% lower than B. thuringiensis single treatment. In the welsh onion field, the accumulated mortalities of 3 times replicated with mixture of B. thuringiensis and 40 mM tannic acid were 83.9, 89.4 and 66.8% compare with 61.8, 80.4 and 47.3% as only B. thuringiensis treatment, respectively.
This study was performed to investigate the escape of pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, from two vector species (Monochamus alternatus and M. saltuarius) through oviposition and feeding behavior. First, we checked number of PWNs escaped from M. alternatus emerged from three different cases of pine logs. In case A, healthy pine trees were cut into logs and left in pine forest infected with PWN. In case B, healthy pine trees were cut into logs, left in large screen cage, and let them oviposited by M. alternatus emerged from pine trees infested with PWN. In case C, pine trees which were harboring M. alternatus were cut into logs, and PWN was inoculated artificially. The M. alternatus adults emerged from the above three cases of pine logs were checked in the next year to know how many PWN they were harboring in their bodies. The percentages of M. alternatus harboring PWN (18.3 and 15.6%, respectively) and number of nematodes per vector (5,713.1±9,248.3 and 2,034.1±4,746.8 PWNs, respectively) in case A and B logs are similar to each other. However, the percentage and the number in case C (38.3% and 20,083.1±32,188.3 PWNs) were higher than those of case A and B. Among 52 M. alternatus adults harboring PWN from all the three cases, 20 adults (38.5%) were harboring more than 5,000 PWNs per beetle. And these 20 adults were harboring 97.9% of the total PWNs in 52 adults. Second, we checked the daily escape of PWNs from M. alternatus and M. saltuarius collected at pine forest infested with PWN. The PWN escaped from their vector body for 34.9±12.4 days for M. alternatus, and for 23.9±16.2 days for M. saltuarius, reaching at peak escape during the 2nd week of emergence of the two vector species. A 44.5 and 47.2% to the total PWNs escaped from vector body within 2 weeks of vector emergence for M. alternatus and M. saltuarius, respectively. The number of PWNs escaped from each vector was 3,570.6±5,189.2 and 1,556.2±1,710.3 for M. alternatus and M. saltuarius, respectively.
This study was conducted to identify plant-parasitic nematodes and determine the distribution pattern of the nematode species in citrus fruit orchards in Korea from April to August, 2008. Plant-parasitic nematodes were found in 139 among 178 soil samples. Tylenchulus semipenetrans was collected from 85 out of 94 Citrus unshiu orchards examined (90.4%). C. junos orchards infested with T. semipenetrans were 60 out of 84 (71.4%). However, proportion of dominant species between the two was different. At domestic Citrus orchards, it proved that T. semipenetrans was the most important plant-parasitic nematode from this study. The overall frequency of the plant-parasitic nematodes was positively correlated with the cultivation years. More alkaline soils tended to harbor more T. semipenetrans. However the correlation coefficient between the two was very low.
The egg size and weight of the gray field slug, Deroceras reticulatum Müller, was 1.91×2.19 ㎜ and 3.3 ㎎ at 24℃, respectively. Its weight increased from newly laid eggs to adults for 17 weeks at four temperature regimes and was heaviest at 20℃, followed by 24, 16 and 28℃. Likewise, hatching rate of the egg batches was highest with 95% at 20℃, followed by 24, 16 and 28℃ with significant differences. The number of eggs in the batches was increased with 20 at 20℃ while it was only 10 at 28℃. The average accumulated egg-laying days was longest with 15 days at 20℃ while shortest with 9 days at 24℃. The range of egg-laying period was shortest with 84-134 days at 16℃ and longest at 20℃. Thus, the total number of eggs laid by adult D. reticulatum was highest with 217 at 20℃ and lowest with 105 at 16℃. The egg period was 12-19 days while the juvenile period and adult longevity were 51-68 days and 85-134 days, respectively. The life span of D. reticulatum from egg to adult was longest with 216 days at 20℃, followed by 193 days at 24℃, 170 days at 16℃ and 151 days at 28℃. Accordingly, the most favorable temperature for the oviposition, development and longevity of D. reticulatum is 20℃.
Two closely related species, the soybean podworm, Matsumuraeses phaseoli, and the podborer, M. falcana, gives differential economic damages on crops. It is difficult to discriminate these potential sympatric species by morphological characters. The goal of this study was to develop a discriminating molecular marker based on polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). A partial genomic fragment (500 bp) of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidaseⅠ (mtCOI) was sequenced in both species, in which restriction site by Rsa I was selected as a dichotomous marker. PCR-RFLP in the mtCOI region clearly discriminated both species.