An attempt was made to stimulate future research by providing exemplary information, which would integrate published knowledge to solve specific pest problem caused by resistance. This review was directed to find a way for delaying resistance development with consideration of chemical(s) nature, of mixture, rotation, or mosaics, and of insecticide(s) compatible with the biological agents in integrated pest management (IPM). The application frequency, related to the resistance development, was influenced by insecticide activity from potentiation, residual period, and the vulnerability to resistance development of chemical, with secondary pest. Chemical affected feeding, locomotion, flight, mating, and predator avoidance. Insecticides with negative cross-resistance by the difference of target sites and mode of action would be adapted to mixture, rotation and mosaic. Mixtures for delaying resistance depend on each component killing very high percentage of the insects, considering allele dominance, cross-resistance, and immigration and fitness disadvantage. Potential disadvantages associated with mixtures include disruption of biological control, resistance in secondary pests, selecting very resistant population, and extending cross-resistance range. The rotation would use insecticides in high and low doses, or with different metabolic mechanisms. Mosaic apply insecticides to the different sectors of a grid for highly mobile insects, spray unrelated insecticides to sedentary aphids in different areas, or mix plots of insecticide-treated and untreated rows. On the evolution of pest resistance, selectivity and resistance of parasitoids and predator decreased the number of generations in which pesticide treatment is required and they could be complementary to refuges from pesticides To enhance the viability of parasitoids, the terms on the insecticides selectivity and factors affecting to the selectivity in field were examined. For establishment of resistant parasitoid, migration, survivorship, refuge, alternative pesticides were considered. To use parasitoids under the pressure of pesticides, resistant or tolerant parasitoids were tested, collected, and/or selected. A parasitoid parasitized more successfully in the susceptible host than the resistant. Factors affecting to selective toxicity of predator are mixing mineral oil, application method, insecticide contaminated prey, trait of individual insecticide, sub-lethal doses, and the developmental stage of predators. To improve the predator/prey ratio in field, application time, method, and formulation of pesticide, reducing dose rate, using mulches and weeds, multicropping and managing of surroundings are suggested. Plant resistance, predator activity, selective insect growth regulator, and alternative prey positively contributed to the increase of the ratio. Using selective insecticides or insecticide resistant predator controlled its phytophagous prey mites, kept them below an economic level, increased yield, and reduced the spray number and fruits damaged.
A taxonomic review of a new record, Bolitophagiella pannosa (Lewis) in Korea is presented. Description of adult is presented and also we conducted laboratory and field observations of the life history and fungal hosts of the darkling beetle, Bolitophagiella pannosa (Lewis). A fungivorous tenebrionid beetle, Bolitophagiella pannosa (Lewis), was a rare inhabitant of fungi on deciduous trees (Quercus, Robinia pseudoacacia etc.) in Korea. Development from egg to adulthood took 3~10 months in nature and about 54 days in the laboratory at 25.5~26.1℃ and 63.5~64.5% relative humidity. Both larvae and adults overwintered in their host fungi or beneath the bark of the host tree near the host fungi. Sporophores of Perenniporia medulla-panis (Fr.) Donk and Perenniporia frazinea (Fr.) Ryv. were obligate feeding and breeding sites in Korea. Description, habitus photographs of adult and instar, and illustrations of diagnostic characters are provided.
This study was conducted to investigate specific stages and distribution of overwintering nymphs of green rice leafhopper, Nephotettix cincticeps by measuring head capsule width. The nymphal head capsule width of the 1st instar to the 5th instar was 0.381, 0.502, 0.673, 0.979 and 1.128 ㎜, respectively. Its coefficient variation was 5.3, 4.0, 3.0, 4.5 and 5.3%, respectively. Growth ratio of each instar was not significantly different among 2nd to 4th instars as 1.31 to 1.34, but for the 5th instar it decreased as 1.28. The logarithm of the nymphal head capsule width was regressed as a function of the stage number of insects, resulting in LogY = 1.4627 + 0.1192X (r² = 0.9993). Also fitness to the Dyar’s law for the nymphal head capsule width of each instar was 98% or over and the Dyar’s constant (K) was 1.316. The occurrence of N. cincticeps was maximum at the end of January with 195 individuals/0.25 ㎡. The most abundant instar in the overwintering N. cincticeps population was 4th instar accounting for over 90%. Population of the 5th instar began to increase from mid-March, and adults began to occur in early April.
The changes of feeding pattern and the amount of insecticide penetrated into the leaf were monitored for 420 min after treatment of three concentrations of dinotefuran. At about 30 min after treatment of insecticide, the overall feeding pattern in EPG (Electrical Penetration Graph) monitoring was started to change, and there was significant difference in proportions of NP (non-penetration), PA (pathway activity), and phloem-feeding patterns among the different concentrations of dinotefuran treatment. Especially, as the amount of insecticide penetrated into a leaf increased, the reactive behaviors against this insecticide such as withdrawal of proboscis and movements of stylet of aphid were more quickly exhibited. And also, total time at which the proboscis of the aphids did not penetrate the plant was getting longer. The amount of dinotefuran penetrated into a leaf was monitored with HPLC. When the recommended concentration (100 ㎎/L) of the insecticide was treated, 5.24~7.24 ㎎/L of the insecticide was detected from the leaf, and the proboscis of the aphids was apparently withdrawn from the leaf at approximately 60 minutes after treatment of this insecticide.
Nymphal development of the B and Q biotypes of Bemisia tabaci was normal on all seven tomato varieties tested. However, their nymphal development was different on red pepper varieties. B biotype was not normally developed on nine red pepper varieties tested. On the contrary, Q biotype was normally developed, but its adult emergence rate was very low in Nokkwang variety than in other eight varieties. The EPG analysis of the feeding behavior of Bemisia tabaci showed that B and Q biotypes had different duration of phloem phases on red pepper. Q biotype showed longer phloem phases than B biotype. On Nokkwang variety, Q biotype had short phloem phases and did not prefer to feed on Nokkwang variety. Interestingly, Q biotype was found to have long duration of phloem phases on eight red pepper varieties, but B biotype did not prefer to feed on red pepper varieties. However, both biotypes did not show any difference in feeding time on tomato varieties.
This study was performed to investigate the emergence timing and daily emergence from the different tree species logs (Korean white pine, Pine, and Japanese larch) at Cheongwon, Chungcheongbuk-do from 2006 to 2008. Pine sawyer adults began to emerge on early May (2~10th day) and finished on mid-June (4~20th day) in the Korean white pine and pine logs. However, pine sawyer adults began to emerge on mid-May (13th day) and finished late May (27th day) in Japanese larch logs. Japanese larch logs shows shorter emergence timing of pine sawyer adult compare to those of other two tree species. Emergence timing shows no difference between males and females. Sex ratios of emerged adult in 2007 were 0.55 from Korean white pine, 0.46 from Pine, and 0.59 from Japanese larch, it shows no difference among tree species. Female and male adults emerged throughout 24 hrs, 22.8% of the total adults emerged from 12~14:00 (22.8%) and adults emerged lowest from 06~08:00. Of the adults emerged from the logs, 98.9% was univoltine and the rest was biennial which emerged next year.
The Luciola lateralis larva took 5.3 days from climbing on the land to the pupal cocoon formation. It took 6.6 days for a larva to eventually transform to a pupa after building a pupal cocoon. The size of pupal cocoon was 10.1 ㎜ in length, 4.7 ㎜ in width and its wall thickness was 1.3 ㎜. The mean pupal period was 10.5 days. The adult stayed 6.8 days in the pupal cocoon before escaping the cocoon. The peak adult emergence appeared around 9 p.m., and decreased after 10 p.m. The optimal soil temperature for emergence was 23.4℃. The female adult of the natural population (Nat-type) lived shorter, laid fewer eggs, and the oviposition frequency was fewer than that of the Lab-type individuals. However, a few individuals from the natural population laid 200-400 eggs. The less number of oviposition in the natural population may be due to the fact that the female adults might lay eggs before the collection for the experiment.
This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between the climbing up event of Luciola lateralis larvae and water temperature. In the laboratory condition, the larvae did not come out of water at constant temperature condition of 19.3 ± 0.3℃ and tried to climb up at varying temperature condition of 20~22℃ (mean temperature 20.9 ± 0.9℃) without success. However, they climbed up at constant temperature condition of 20.8 ± 0.6℃. The frequency of the larval climbing up was highest as 63.6% at 20~21℃. The most larvae climbed up at approximately 21℃ of average daily water temperature, In the natural condition, the larvae climbed up at 19.8~21.7℃ and the frequency of the larval climbing up was high as 80.4% at 20~21℃. The larval climbing up was also little observed at 19~20℃ at which no larval climbing up was found in the laboratory experiment. No larvae attempted to climb up when water temperature was below 19℃ and above 22℃. It took 18 days from climbing up of larvae to appearance of adults. In its habitat, the range of water temperature required for larvae to climb up is assumed to be 19.6~21.8℃ and the most suitable water temperature may be 20.4 ± 2.3℃. Therefore, the range of water temperature required for larvae to climb up is assumed to be 19.8~21.7℃, and the suitable water temperature range for larvae may be 20~21℃, and the most suitable temperature is thought to be 21℃.
Local and seasonal populations of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta , were monitored with sex pheromone trapping and RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) molecular marker to analyze their movement in apple orchards. To detect their movements among farms, pheromone traps were placed at regions between apple farms (‘outside-farms’) as well as within-farms (‘inside-farms’). Four seasonal adult peaks were evident in apple-cultivating fields from April to October in both trappings of inside- or outside-farms. After overwintering generation, populations of inside-farms were significantly reduced with frequent insecticide applications, compared to populations of outside-farms. Within apple farms, G. molesta tended to be unevenly distributed because of significant sublocal preference. Active movements of local and seasonal populations of G. molesta were supported by gene flow analysis using RAPD marker. Monitoring data using sex pheromone and seasonal reduction in initial genetic differentiation detected in the overwintering populations suggest that there must be significant movement of G. molesta among different orchards in apple-cultivating areas.
Temperature effects on diapause termination of Paratlanticus ussuriensis eggs were studied by measuring embryonic development and hatching rates at various conditions of indoor chilling and overwintering temperatures. Diapausing eggs of P. ussuriensis did not hatch at continued incubation at 25℃ and even after chilling for once at either 5℃ or 10℃ for 30, 45 and 60 days. In addition, double chillings at 5℃ with a 90 days interval at 25℃ did not induce hatching of diapausing eggs. However, double chillings at 10℃ induced hatching at 3.6~26.7%. When eggs were incubated at 25℃ after chilling for once at 5℃ for various periods, those weights were not changed but those chilled at 10℃ gradually increased to approximately 1.5 times. When 60-days-old eggs were artificially deposited under the soil at three different mountain sites in September 2007, the hatching rates of the first-overwintered eggs were 11.3, 3.5 and 4.1% and those of the second-overwintered eggs were 25.1, 21.6 and 0.4% at Hoepori, Bitanri and Hwasanri, respectively. Most eggs were hatched from mid-March to mid-April but little bit earlier in southern regions. During the hatching period soil temperatures in three tested locations were around 8 to 12℃. In overall, diapausing eggs of P. ussuriensis were greatly influenced by chilling temperature conditions and those repeated cycles, and may required overwintering for one or two times to hatch for the post-embryonic development.
Cage experiments by artificial infestations with different initial densities of Frankliniella occidentalis were conducted to analyze damages and develop control thresholds of F. occidentalis on greenhouse eggplant in 2005 and on greenhouse sweet pepper in 2007. In the eggplant experiment, the infestations of F. occidentalis resulted in direct damage on fruit surface and non-marketable fruits which had several thin or thick lines or bleaching patches on the surface. F. occidentalis adults were frequently found on the flowers of eggplants, while nymphs were mainly observed on leaves. The fruit yield of eggplants was not significantly different among experimental plots with different initial density of F. occidentalis. Relationship between % non-marketable fruits among harvested fruits of eggplant and sticky trap catches of F. occidentalis (no. thrips/trap/week) at two weeks before the harvest showed a positive correlation. Using the estimated relationship, the control threshold of F. occidentalis on greenhouse eggplant was estimated at 10 adults per week at two weeks before the harvest when 5% of non-marketable fruit was applied for the gain threshold. In the experiment of sweet pepper, the direct damage by F. occidentalis was observed on the fruit surface and calyx, and the marketable grade of the damaged fruits decreased. The significant yield loss of marketable fruits was found in plots with high initial introduced-densities. There was a high relationship between thrips density and percentage of damaged fruits. Assuming 5% yield loss (non-marketable fruit) for the gain threshold, the control threshold of F. occidentalis on greenhouse sweet pepper was 4.8 adults per trap and 0.9 individuals per flower at two weeks before harvest.
This study was conducted to develop economic injury level (EIL) and economic threshold (ET) of Cabbage armyworm, Mamestra brassicae L. on cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var). The changes of cabbage biomass and M. brassicae density were investigated after introduction of larval M. brassicae (2nd instar) at different densities: 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 larvae per plant at 40 d after planting for an open field experiment, and 0, 2, 5, 8 and 12 larvae per plant at 25 d after planting for a glass house experiment. In the field experiment, the yield loss of cabbage was not significantly different among treated-plots at 30 d after the larval introduction, showing an over-compensatory response of cabbage plants to M. brassicae attack. In the glasshouse experiment, however, the biomass of cabbage at 15 d after the larval introduction significantly decreased with increasing the initial introduced number of M. brassicae, resulting in 38.3, 36.7, 21.7, 23.3 and 16.7g in above treated-plots, respectively. The relationship between cumulative insect days (CID) and yield loss (%) of cabbage was well described by a nonlinear logistic equation. Using the estimated equation, EIL of M. brassicae on cabbage was estimated at 44 CID per plant based on the yield loss 14%, which take into account of an empirical gain threshold 5% and marketable rate 91% of cabbage. Also, ET was calculated at 80% of the EIL: 35 CID per plant. Until a more elaborate EIL-model is developed, the present result may be useful for M. brassicae management at early growth stage of cabbage.
Without pesticide applications, mass-trapping by sex pheromone was successful to control Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) in a large scale tomato glasshouse (10,000 ㎡) at a low cost of 60 won/㎡. Pheromone traps were placed both inside and outside of the glasshouse. Inside the glasshouse traps were installed in a regular space, one trap per 500 ㎡, to catch the moths that were present in the glasshouse, and traps were also set outside of the glasshouse, at intervals of ca. 20 m, to prevent the moths from invading the glasshouse. In the experiment, more than 400 S. litura were captured per trap.
For the environment-friendly control of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, in spring onion fields, we have examined an alternative application method. Twenty-five insecticides registered for spring onion were tested for control effect against the beet armyworm in the laboratory, then the best 9 chemical and a single biological insecticides were selected and compared with 2 new isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis in a polyvinyl house. After that, 4 chemical and 3 B. thuringiensis treatments were used in the field for the control of beet armyworm in the spring onion. Two application methods are used: one is triple treatments with the same chemical and the other is alternative application with different chemicals and B. thuringiensis for 7 days intervals. Indoxacarb WP – chlorfluazuron EC – B.t. var. kurstaki CAB141 and indoxacarb WP – methoxyfenozide + spinosad SC – Chlorfluazuron EC – B.t. var. aizawai CAB109, B.t. var. kurstaki CAB141 showed greater than 78% mortality of beet armyworm larvae and greater than 43% damage decrease in spring onions infested by beet armyworm. These results showed that alternative applications had higher control effect than any other applications. It was suggested that alternative applications with microbial biological agents such as B. thuringiensis might minimize the development of insecticide resistance and might be used as the environment-friendly control of the beet armyworm.
The acaricidal activities of Illicium verum fruit-derived materials against adults of Dermanyssus gallinae were examined using the direct contact application method. Based on laboratory tests, an acaricidal constituent of I. verum fruit was determined because of its potent activity. Results were compared with those of the currently used acaricides such as dichlorvos, diazinon, and carbaryl. The acaricidal principle of I. verum fruit was identified as (E)-anethole using a GC-MS. Its acaricidal activity was compared with those of 12 compounds having a similar chemical moiety. Based on the LD50 values, the acaricidal activities of (+)-or-(–)-neomenthol were the strongest (0.01 ㎎/㎠]) and (E)-anethole, (+)-or-(–)-menthol, (±)-isoborneol, (–)-menthone, and (1S)-endo-(–)-borneol showed similar results (0.02 ㎎/㎠), and (1R)-(+)-camphor and (+)-menthone also gave good activities (0.03 and 0.04 ㎎/㎠, respectively). These compounds showed more toxic acaricidal activities than diazinon and carbaryl, 0.05 and > 0.2 ㎎/㎠, respectively, but were not comparable to that of dichlorvos with 0.0002 ㎎/㎠. These results indicate that the I. verum fruit-derived materials and tested compounds descried as poultry red mites-control agents could be useful for managing field populations of D. gallinae.
Rearing media were selected for the production of sterile larvae of greenbottle blowfly, Phaenicia (=Lucilia) sericata (Meigen) which is widely used in maggot therapy. Eight media available in the market were used in this study. Egg hatchability was not different among the media. Survivorship of the larvae was higher in blood agar (BA), sabouraud dextrose agar, and brucella blood agar than the others. A higher content (20~40%) of sheep blood in BA and chocolate agar increased the survivorship of larvae. The eggs and the early 3rd larvae could be stored for 12 days at 8℃ and for 15 days at 6℃ without decrease in hatchability and larval survivorship, respectively.