Rice quality should be considered as a primary consumer requirement. Regarding marketing, characteristics such as appearance, physicochemical properties, and palatability of brand rice are of high economic importance. Therefore, this study was conducted to select the optimal rice cultivars representing the commercial rice brands of Gyeongsangbuk-do province in Korea. Various rice grain quality components, grain appearance, several physicochemical properties of rice grain, and texture or palatability of cooked rice grains of ten cultivars (namely ‘top quality rice’) cultivated at three different locations, such as inland mountainous and southern plain areas of Gyeongsangbuk-do province in 2013~2014, were evaluated, and the obtained data was analyzed. ‘Hiami’ showed slightly higher protein contents and lower palatability of cooked rice than the other rice cultivars. Rice production and head rice yield produced at Gumi were the highest. The protein content of milled rice produced at Andong, an inland mountainous region, was approximately 0.3% point lower than that from other locations, whereas the amylose content of milled rice was approximately 1% point higher than those from the other plain regions, Daegu and Gumi. We evaluated the texture, Glossiness value determined using a Toyo teste meter and palatability of cooked rice of ten cultivars. The hardness of cooked rice produced in Andong was slightly lower than that produced in Daegu and Gumi, and additionally, the palatability of cooked rice produced in Andong was the best, followed by that producted in Gumi and Daegu. Considering rice yield and grain quality in the major rice cultivation areas of Gyeongsangbuk-do province, the rice cultivars that may be suitable for each region could be recommended mid-late maturation: ‘Younghojinmi’ and ‘Mipum’ in Daegu, ‘Daebo’, ‘Samgwang’, Chilbo’ and ‘Younghojinmi’ in Gumi, ‘Samgwang’, ‘Jinsumi’ and ‘Sukwang’ in Andong. These results obtained in this study imply that the selected cultivars with high yield and quality could be recommended with high priority to rice farmers in the regions.
We investigated physicochemical properties of puffed snacks with intermediate and high amylose rice varieties. The intermediate amylose rice varieties ‘Sindongjin’ and high amylose rice varieties newly developed for food processing, ‘Dodamssal’ and ‘Goami4’ were tested for this study. The crude fat and crude protein contents of the rice cultivars ranged 1.47-3.08% and 6.30-7.63%, respectively. The resistant starch and amylose contents of Dodamssal and Goami4 were higher than those of Sindongjin. The hardness of rice was the highest in Sindongjin and Dodamssal. Also, Hardness of puffed snacks decreased by 72.07% for Sindongjin, 88.21% for Dodamssal and 66.67% for Goami4 compared to raw rice samples. The sensory evaluation showed that the highest scores in taste, texture and overall acceptability of puffed snacks were obtained in Dodamssal. The results of this study indicate that Dodamssal was suitable varieties for puffed snacks. Also, the physicochemical properties of Dodamssal were improved by the extrusion process. Therefore Dodamssal can be used for the industrial production of puffed snacks.
To elucidate the physiological responses of rice plants to the essential mineral silicon (Si), we assessed the effects of treatments with Si, nitrogen (NH4NO3; ammonium nitrate), and calcium (CaCl2; calcium chloride), independently or in combination on mineral uptake rates and levels of the hormones abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellin (GA1) and jasmonic acid (JA). We found that nitrogen and calcium uptake was inhibited by Si application. However, solo application of nitrogen or calcium did not affect Si uptake. Compared to the untreated plants, the application of Si, NH4NO3 or CaCl2 increased the endogenous hormone levels in treated plants. In particular, the concentrations of GA1 and JA increased significantly after the application of Si or NH4NO3. The level of GA1 observed after a treatment (solo or combine) with Si, and NH4NO3 was higher than that of the control. By contrast, independent application of CaCl2 or a combined treatment with Si and CaCl2 did not alter GA1 levels. The highest level of GA1 was present in plants given a combination treatment of Si and NH4NO3. This effect was observed at all time points (6 h, 12 h and 24 h). Endogenous JA contents were higher in all treatments than the control. In particular, a combination treatment with Si and NH4NO3 significantly increased the JA levels in plants compared to other treatments at all time points. A small increase in JA levels was observed after 6 h in plants given the CaCl2 treatment. However, JA levels did not differ between plants given a CaCl2 treatment and controls after 12 h or 24 h of exposure. We conclude that treatment with CaCl2 alone does not affect endogenous JA levels in the short term. Endogenous ABA contents did not show any differences among the various treatments.
This study was conducted over a 3-year period from 2013 to 2015 in the mid-northern inland, Cheolweon, Korea, to investigate changes in flowering date, daily mean temperature during grain filling, and yield characteristics affected by transplanting date in an early-maturing rice variety, ‘Joun’. Thirty-day-old seedlings were transplanted at four different dates at 15-day interval from May 5 to June 19. Flowering dates were July 16, July 21, July 31, and August 14 when transplanting was performed on May 5, May 20, June 4, and June 19, respectively. Late transplanting resulted in higher daily mean temperature before flowering but late-transplanted rice required fewer days and lower cumulative temperature to reach flowering from transplanting. As transplanting was delayed, daily mean temperature for 40 days after flowering decreased, whereas daily sunshine hours for the same period increased, with a temperature of 24.8°C and sunshine for 5.8 hours being recorded at the transplanting on May 5, and with a temperature of 21.0°C and sunshine for 7.7 hours at the transplanting on June 19. With late transplanting, panicles per square meter significantly decreased, whereas spikelets per panicle showed an increasing trend. Regression analysis showed that maximum head rice yield was attained from the transplanting on May 18, for which the flowering date was July 21, and daily mean temperature for 40 days from that flowering date was 24.6°C. A decrease in head rice yield by 5% and 10% of the maximum was observed for rice transplanted on June 6 and June 15, which resulted in flowering dates of August 2 and August 11, respectively, and the daily mean temperatures for 40 days from flowering were 23.2 and 21.7°C, respectively. Therefore, in mid-northern inland, it is recommended to transplant ‘Joun’ on May 18 to induce flowering on July 21, when grain filling is subjected to a daily mean temperature of 24.6°C during active filling stage.
The relationship between mean air temperature after heading and starch characteristics of colored rice grains was investigated using three colored rice cultivars. Pasting temperature within each rice cultivar with different harvest times differed. The pasting temperatures of two rice cultivars, Hongjinju and Joseongheugchal, reached the highest at 40 days after heading and decreased during the late harvest time. Distribution of amylopectin in the Hongjinju rice cultivar at the earlier harvest time contained a greater number of very short chains with the degree of polymerization (DP) between 6 and 12 and fewer chains with a DP from 13 to 24 than that of the later harvest time. However, there was little difference in the distribution of the longer chains of 25 ≤ DP ≥ 36 and 37 ≤ DP for latter harvest times compared to that of the earlier ones. It was suggested that the structure of amylopectin affected the varietal differences in patterns of chain length of amylopectin during grain filling. In addition, the control of ripening was different from that causing the pigment effects in the fine structure of amylopectin in the three colored rice cultivars. Larger starch granules were observed in the Joseongheugchal rice cultivar and smaller granules occurred in the Hongjinju rice cultivar. The present study revealed that later harvest times led to a clear increase in the mean granule size of starch in the three colored rice cultivars.
The purpose of this study was to provide basic data on the genetic and environmental effects of stickiness in glutinous rice varieties. In our study, we analyzed the genotype-by-environment (G × E) interactions of the stickiness using six glutinous rice varieties under six environmental conditions. AMMI (Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interaction) analysis results showed that genotype (variety, G), environment (cultivation region, E) and G × E interaction were highly significant (P < 0.001). Among all the variations of stickiness for glutinous rice varieties, the environmental effect was 24.5%, the genetic effect was 37.1%, and the G × E interaction effect was 28.9%. From the AMMI analysis, the IPCA1 scores of Aranghangchal (G6, IPCA1: 3.85) and Hwaseonchal (G4, IPCA1: -5.24) was lower than other varieties. On the other hand, the Sangjuchal (G1, IPCA1: -61.23) and Boseogchal (G2, IPCA1: 41.21) were highly affected by environmental effects. In this study, there were large differences in stickiness according to region of cultivation. In the future, it is considered that a precise study should be carried out on the environmental factors that may increase the stickiness of glutinous rice varieties.
This research was conducted to evaluate methods of enhancing the waterlogging resistance of soybean plant. Thus, we applied seven types of plant growth regulators (PGRs) to soybean plants and exposed them to waterlogged conditions for a total of 14 days. To evaluate stress resistance, we monitored plant growth characteristics data such as height, chlorophyll content, and chlorophyll fluorescence for 28 days after the initial waterlogging (14 days under waterlogging conditions and 14 days after waterlogging). According to the results, plant height was significantly increased by gibberellin A4 (GA4) treatment compared to the control treatment and waterlogging-only treatment. However, we could not detect plant height owing to plant death when we applied abscisic acid (ABA). Except for GA4 and ABA treatments, plant heights slightly decreased in all treatments compared to the waterlogging-only treatment. The chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence showed a similar tendency among PGR treatments. The chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence were significantly increased by ethephon and kinetin treatments 28 days after waterlogging compared to the waterlogging-only treatment. Consequently, kinetin and ethephon treatments induced more resistant phenotypes in soybean plants during or after exposure to waterlogging conditions.
The potato tuber is known as a rich source of essential nutrients, used throughout the world. Although potatobreeding programs share some priorities, the major objective is to increase the genetic potential for yield through breeding or to eliminate hazards that reduce yield. Glycoalkaloids, which are considered a serious hazard to human health, accumulate naturally in potatoes during growth, harvesting, transportation, and storage. Here, we used the AMMI (additive main effects and multiplicative interaction) and GGE (Genotype main effect and genotype by environment interaction) biplot model, to evaluate tuber yield stability and glycoalkaloid content in six potato cultivars across three locations during 2012/2013. The environment on tuber yield had the greatest effect and accounted for 33.0% of the total sum squares; genotypes accounted for 3.8% and G×E interaction accounted for 11.1% which is the nest highest contribution. Conversely, the genotype on glycoalkaloid had the greatest effect and accounted for 82.4% of the total sum squares), whereas environment and G×E effects on this trait accounted for only 0.4% and 3.7%, respectively. Furthermore, potato genotype ‘Superior’, which covers most of the cultivated area, exhibited high yield performance with stability. ‘Goun’, which showed lower glycoalkaloid content, was the most suitable and desirable genotype. Results showed that, while tuber yield was more affected by the environment, glycoalkaloid content was more dependent on genotype. Further, the use of the AMMI and GGE biplot model generated more interactive visuals, facilitated the identification of superior genotypes, and suggested decisions on a variety of recommendations for specific environments.
This study was conducted to establish the type and method of fertilization for no-tillage during the third year of No-tillage (NT) and Conventional-tillage (CT) practices, towards different kinds of fertilizers. In this experiment, the livestock manure showed higher in response to fertilizer effects of no-tillage. Comparing growth characteristics and yield in NT and CT. Regarding yield, there is no significant between livestock fertilizer and chemical fertilizer, but between livestock fertilizer and chemical fertilizer in conventional fertilization has significant differences. Based on the result, livestock fertilizer is effective way on the quantity of the crop. Nitrogen absorption of plant in livestock of no-tillage is more effective than conventional fertilization. In case of the phosphorus absorption and potassium absorption of plant, fertilizer effect has no significant. Nitrogen is highly absorbed in livestock fertilization of NT. Absorption of phosphorus and potassium are similar.
This study evaluated the quality characteristics, polyphenolic compounds, and radical scavenging activity of cooked-rice added to commercially available mixed grains. L-value of cooked-rice with various mixed grains decreased compared to that of cooked-white rice; however, a- and b-values increased. Hardness and elasticity of cooked-rice added to various mixed grains were significantly lower in the pressure cooker compared to the electric cooker. There was no significant difference in adhesiveness and stickiness between rice from the electric cooker and pressure cooker. Total polyphenol and flavonoid contents of cooked-rice added to various mixed grains were significantly increased. The average total polyphenol content of cooked-rice added to various mixed grains cooked in an electric cooker and pressure cooker were 16.50 ± 3.86 and 15.88 ± 3.52 mg gallic acid equivalent /100 g, and flavonoid contents were 1.58 ± 0.00 and 1.55 ± 0.02 mg catechin equivalents/100 g, respectively. The average of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity was 9.27 ± 2.62 and 8.72 ± 2.41 mg trolox equivalent (TE)/100 g, and 2,2’-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging activity was 22.89 ± 4.60 and 23.07 ± 4.49 mg TE/100 g for cooked-rice added to various mixed grains cooked in an electric cooker and pressure cooker, respectively. Phenol content and radical scavenging activity of cooked rice was in proportion to the amount of added grains, such as brown rice, colored rice, barley, soybean, and sorghum.
This study was conducted to evaluate effects of seeding rate and depth during broadcast sowing on growth and yield of foxtail millet and proso millet over 2 years. The rate of sowing seeds was adjusted to 5, 7, 10 and 20 kg per ha on foxtail millet, and 5, 10, 15 and 30 kg per ha for proso millet. Sowing depth was 0.5, 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 cm used tractor rotary attachment for shallow-tilling. The rate of seedlings standing when foxtail millet and proso millet were sowed to a depth of 0.5~5 cm was 72.0~78.0% and 73.0~80.5%, respectively. Plant height and weight at the three-leaf stage after emergence was highest for the treatment with 3 cm rotary depth. As the rate of broadcast seed sowing increased, plant length, diameter, seed length, and seeds on the panicle decreased. The grain yield of foxtail millet was highest with broadcast seed sowing of 10 kg per ha (3652, 3977 kg ha-1) and proso millet was highest at broadcast seed sowing of 15 kg per ha (2226, 2052 kg ha-1) in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Therefore, the optimum rate of sowed seeds under broadcast cultivation was 10 kg ha-1 for foxtail millet and 15 kg per ha-1 for proso millet. Optimum sowing depth for foxtail and proso millet under broadcast cultivation was 3 cm, using a rotary tractor attachment for shallow-tilling.
This work was conducted to identify sweet potato [(Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.)] cultivars showing high yield and processing suitability in the Jeonbuk region of Korea. Shoot-slips (30 cm in length) of 14 cultivars were planted with a planting density of 75×25 cm on May 30, and cultivated with black film mulching. Vine elongation at 30 days after planting was significantly increased (> 90 cm) in ‘Dahomi’ and ‘Sinhwangmi’, and was excellent (> 250 cm) 120 days after planting in ‘Sinhwangmi’, ‘Shinyulmi’, ‘Daeyumi’, ‘Jinhongmi’, and ‘Yeonhwangmi’. The branch number per plant showed a dramatic increase in ‘Shinzami’ 30 and 120 days after planting. The leaf number per plant showed the highest increase in ‘Shinzami’ 30 days and in ‘Sinhwangmi’ 120 days after planting. Total weight, mean weight, and number of marketable tubers per plant were significantly higher 150 days after planting than that 120 days after planting. Marketable tuber yield at 120 days was high, over 2.5 ton/10a in ‘Daeyumi’, ‘Dahomi’, and ‘Jeonmi’, and was considerably increased, from 3.2 ton/10a to 3.5 ton/10a, 150 days after planting. Total weight of marketable tubers per plant and marketable tuber yield 120 and 150 days after planting had significant positive correlations with vine length and number of nodes 30 days after planting. Starch value was significantly higher 150 days after planting than that 120 days after planting. ‘Daeyumi’ and ‘Jeonmi’ had good growth vigor, high yield, and high starch content; ‘Dahomi’ also exhibited beneficial traits such as good growth vigor, high yield, and bright orange-colored flesh.
The main objective of this study was to increase the germination percentage of kenaf seeds with less number of times under non-saline and saline conditions. Therefore, the first goal was to assess the response of kenaf seeds to NaCl. The second goal was to evaluate the effects of KNO3 on kenaf seed germination. The germination percentage exhibited a decreasing tendency in germination rate. Plant dry weight was approximately 0.2 g in all treatments at 5 days after germination. As time passed, the electrical conductivity (EC) value of hydro-priming (HP) consistently increased by 8.7 mS/cm at 24 hours of immersion. However, seeds primed with KNO3 showed no difference in EC values even as times passed. Regarding the priming effect, priming in 100 mM KNO3 concentration for 12 hours increased germination up to 85% in H20 solution and in 0 mM KNO3 concentration upto 73.8% under 0.3% NaCl solution, compared to that of Control. Germination synchronization, shoot length, and leaf unfolding of primed seeds were greater than those of the Control. In addition, main root and hair roots appeared more rapidly in the treated seeds and were more abundant compared to that of the Control. The T50 (times to reach 50% of the final germination percentage) of the Control in both H20 and 0.3% NaCl solutions was 18 and 22 hours, respectively. However, when treated KNO3 priming (0 to 100 mM) in H20 and 0.3% NaCl solution, 9 hours was sufficient to reach T50. Primed (hydro-priming and KNO3) seeds had a lower MDG (mean days untill germination; 0.6-0.62) compared to that of the Control (1.13-1.31) in H20 and 0.3% NaCl solutions. Regarding dry weight of plants after priming, an increasing tendency after the priming treatment in the H20 solution was observed. Furthermore, no significant difference in plant dry weight under 0.3% NaCl stress was observed between the Control and primed seeds. Taken together, the results suggest that 50-100 mM KNO3 priming for 24 hours optimize seed germination rate in less number of times of exposure with great vigor. Therefore, it is recommended for kenaf seed invigoration before planting.